The Epidermis

The epidermis is the outermost class of the skin, and also protects the human body from the environment. The thickness of the epidermis varies in different varieties of skin; the is just .05 mm thick on the eyelids, and also is 1.5 mm special on the palms and the soles that the feet. The epidermis consists of the melanocytes (the cell in i beg your pardon melanoma develops), the Langerhans" cell (involved in the immune mechanism in the skin), Merkel cells and sensory nerves. The epidermis layer chin is comprised of 5 sublayers that work-related together to continually rebuild the surface ar of the skin:

The Basal cabinet Layer

The basal class is the innermost layer of the epidermis, and contains tiny round cells called basal cells. The basal cells continually divide, and brand-new cells constantly press older people up towards the surface of the skin, where they are at some point shed. The basal cell layer is also known as the stratum germinativum as result of the truth that the is continuous germinating (producing) brand-new cells.

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The basal cabinet layer contains cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes create the skin color or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin that is tan or brown color and also helps defend the deeper great of the skin from the harmful impacts of the sun. Sunlight exposure causes melanocytes to rise production that melanin in stimulate to protect the skin indigenous damaging ultraviolet rays, creating a suntan. Patches of melanin in the skin cause birthmarks, freckles and age spots. Melanoma establishes when melanocytes undergo malignant transformation.

Merkel cells, which space tactile cell of neuroectodermal origin, are likewise located in the basal great of the epidermis.

The Squamous cell Layer

The squamous cabinet layer is located above the basal layer, and is also known together the stratum spinosum or "spiny layer" as result of the truth that the cells space held together with spiny projections. Within this layer space the basal cells that have been driven upward, but these maturing cells room now dubbed squamous cells, or keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce keratin, a tough, safety protein that renders up the bulk of the structure of the skin, hair, and nails.

The squamous cell layer is the thickest layer of the epidermis, and is associated in the deliver of certain substances in and also out the the body. The squamous cell layer likewise contains cells called Langerhans cells. This cells connect themselves come antigens that attack damaged skin and alert the immune system to their presence.

The Stratum Granulosum & the Stratum Lucidum

The keratinocytes from the squamous layer room then pushed up v two thin epidermal layers referred to as the stratum granulosum and also the stratum lucidum. As these cells move more towards the surface ar of the skin, they gain bigger and also flatter and also adhere together, and also then eventually come to be dehydrated and die. This procedure results in the cell fusing together into layers that tough, durable material, which continue to move up come the surface ar of the skin.

The Stratum Corneum

The stratum corneum is the outermost class of the epidermis, and also is comprised of 10 come 30 slim layers of continuous shedding, dead keratinocytes. The stratum corneum is additionally known together the "horny layer," because its cells space toughened prefer an animal"s horn. As the outermost cells age and also wear down, they are changed by new layers the strong, long-wearing cells. The stratum corneum is sloughed off continually as new cells take its place, yet this shedding procedure slows down through age. Finish cell turnover occurs every 28 come 30 work in young adults, if the same procedure takes 45 to 50 work in yonsi adults.

The Dermis

The dermis is situated beneath the epidermis and also is the thickest of the three layers of the skin (1.5 come 4 mm thick), making up about 90 percent the the thickness that the skin. The main features of the dermis space to manage temperature and to it is provided the epidermis through nutrient-saturated blood. Much of the body"s water it is provided is stored in ~ the dermis. This layer contains most of the skins" devoted cells and also structures, including:

Blood VesselsThe blood vessels it is provided nutrients and oxygen to the skin and take far cell waste and cell products. The blood vessels also transport the vitamin D developed in the skin ago to the rest of the body.Lymph VesselsThe lymph vessels bathe the tissues of the skin with lymph, a milky problem that includes the infection-fighting cells of the immune system. These cells work to destroy any kind of infection or invading organisms together the lymph circulates to the lymph nodes.Hair FolliclesThe hair follicle is a tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the part of the hair that is under the skin and also nourishes the hair.Sweat GlandsThe average human being has about 3 million sweat glands. Sweat glands are classified according to two types:Apocrine glands are devoted sweat glands that have the right to be found only in the armpits and also pubic region. These glands secrete a milky sweat that encourages the expansion of the bacteria responsible for body odor.Eccrine glands space the true sweat glands. Uncovered over the whole body, these glands control body temperature by happen water via the pores to the surface ar of the skin, whereby it evaporates and also reduces skin temperature. These glands can develop up to 2 liters that sweat one hour, however, castle secrete greatly water, i m sorry doesn"t encourage the development of odor-producing bacteria.Sebaceous glandsSebaceous, or oil, glands, room attached to hair follicles and can be uncovered everywhere on the body except for the palms that the hands and also the soles of the feet. This glands secrete oil the helps store the skin smooth and also supple. The oil additionally helps store skin waterproof and protects versus an overgrowth the bacteria and fungi top top the skin.Nerve EndingsThe dermis layer also contains pain and also touch receptors that transmit sensations of pain, itch, pressure and also information about temperature come the mind for interpretation. If necessary, shivering (involuntary contraction and also relaxation of muscles) is triggered, generating body heat.Collagen and ElastinThe dermis is organized together through a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. Fibroblasts room skin cell that give the skin that strength and resilience. Collagen is a tough, insoluble protein found throughout the human body in the connective organization that hold muscles and organs in place. In the skin, collagen support the epidermis, lending it that durability. Elastin, a similar protein, is the problem that enables the skin to spring earlier into location when stretched and also keeps the skin flexible.

The dermis great is consisted of of two sublayers:

The Papillary Layer

The upper, papillary layer, has a thin plan of collagen fibers. The papillary layer provides nutrients to select layers that the epidermis and regulates temperature. Both of these functions are completed with a thin, comprehensive vascular device that operates similarly to other vascular solution in the body. Constriction and expansion manage the quantity of blood the flows through the skin and also dictate whether body warm is dispelled once the skin is warm or conserved once it is cold.

The Reticular Layer

The lower, reticular layer, is thicker and made of special collagen fibers that are arranged in parallel to the surface ar of the skin. The reticular class is denser than the papillary dermis, and also it strengthens the skin, giving structure and also elasticity. It likewise supports other components of the skin, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, and also sebaceous glands.

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The Subcutis

The subcutis is the innermost layer of the skin, and consists the a network that fat and also collagen cells. The subcutis is also known together the hypodermis or subcutaneous layer, and also functions together both one insulator, conserving the body"s heat, and also as a shock-absorber, protecting the inside organs. It also stores fat as an energy reserve for the body. The blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, and hair follicles additionally cross through this layer. The thickness of the subcutis layer varies throughout the body and also from human to person.