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As at an early stage as September 1861, the CSA began issuing national currency, promise to salary the bearer the challenge amount — six months after the ratification the a peace treaty.

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Within days of the loss of ft Sumter, four an ext states joined the Confederacy: Virginia, phibìc Carolina, Tennessee, and also Arkansas. The fight lines were now drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in virtually every way. Nearly 21 million world lived in 23 north states. The South claimed just 9 million human being — consisting of 3.5 million servants — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s higher population, however, the South had an army nearly equal in size during the very first year that the war.

The North had an huge industrial benefit as well. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had only one-ninth the commercial capacity of the Union. But that statistic to be misleading. In 1860, the North made 97 percent that the country"s firearms, 96 percent the its rail locomotives, 94 percent of its cloth, 93 percent the its pig iron, and over 90 percent the its boots and shoes. The North had actually twice the density of railroads per square mile. There to be not also one rifleworks in the entire South.


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The south was in ~ a serious disadvantage when it concerned manufacturing, however the Confederacy regulated to save its weapons firing by producing ammunition native melted-down bells from churches and also town squares.

All the the principal ingredients of gunpowder were imported. Since the North regulated the navy, the seas to be in the hands of the Union. A blockade can suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and also willpower.

The South can produce every the food the needed, though transporting it come soldiers and also civilians was a significant problem. The South additionally had a an excellent nucleus the trained officers. 7 of the eight army colleges in the country were in the South.

The South likewise proved come be an extremely resourceful. By the end of the war, it had developed armories and foundries in several states. Castle built substantial gunpowder mills and melted down countless church and also plantation bells because that bronze to develop cannon.

The South"s biggest strength lay in the fact that it to be fighting top top the defensive in its very own territory. Acquainted with the landscape, Southerners could harass north invaders.

The military and political missions of the Union were much more an overwhelming to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and also occupy the South. It had to damage the South"s capacity and also will to resist — a formidable an obstacle in any war.


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"We had the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I could get because that my males was salt and also hard crackers. Ns made the convalescents shoot squirrels, soil hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys v which to make soup because that the men." -from the memoirs of Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners appreciated the initial advantage of morale: The southern was fighting to keep its method of life, whereas the North to be fighting to maintain a union. Slavery did not come to be a moral cause of the Union initiative until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many an essential questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware had actually joined the Confederacy? What if brother or France had pertained to the assist of the South? What if a few decisive at an early stage Confederate victories had turned north public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much better on paper. Yet many determinants undetermined in ~ the outbreak the war could have tilted the balance sheet toward a various outcome.