freezing point, viscosity, particular gravity and certain heat the ethylene glycol based heat-transfer fluids, or brines


Ethylene Glycol based water services are typical in heat-transfer applications whereby the temperature in the heat transfer fluid can be listed below 32oF (0oC). Ethylene glycol is additionally commonly offered in heater applications the temporarily may not be activate (cold) in surroundings v freezing problems - such as cars and also machines v water cooled engines.

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Ethylene Glycol is the most typical antifreeze fluid for standard heating and cooling applications. Ethylene glycol should be avoided if over there is a slightest chance of leakage to potable water or food handling systems. Instead solutions based upon propylene glycol are typically used.

Specific heat, viscosity and certain weight the a water and ethylene glycol equipment vary substantially with the percent that ethylene glycol and also the temperature the the fluid. Properties different so lot from clean water that warm transfer systems with ethylene glycol have to be calculated thoroughly for really temperature and also solution.

Freezing allude of Ethylene Glycol based Water Solutions

Freezing point out of ethylene glycol based water options at miscellaneous temperatures are indicated below


Due to feasible slush creation, ethylene glycol and also water solutions need to not be offered in conditions close to freeze points.

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Dynamic Viscosity of Ethylene Glycol based Water Solutions

Dynamic viscosity - μ- of ethylene glycol based water remedies at miscellaneous temperatures are indicated below


Dynamic Viscosity - μ - (centiPoise)TemperatureEthylene Glycol solution (% through volume)(oF)(oC)253040506065100
0 -17.8 1) 1) 15 22 35 45 310
40 4.4 3 3.5 4.8 6.5 9 10.2 48
80 26.7 1.5 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.8 4.5 15.5
120 48.9 0.9 1 1.3 1.5 2 2.4 7
160 71.1 0.65 0.7 0.8 0.95 1.3 1.5 3.8
200 93.3 0.48 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.88 0.98 2.4
240 115.6 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 1.8
280 137.8 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 1.2

below freezing point above boiling point

Note! The dynamic viscosity of an ethylene glycol based water systems is increased compared with the dynamic viscosity of clean water. As a consequence the head lose (pressure loss) in the a piping device with ethylene glycol is increased contrasted to clean water.

Specific heaviness of Ethylene Glycol based Water Solutions

Specific gravity - SG - that ethylene glycol based water remedies at miscellaneous temperatures are indicated below


Specific Gravity- SG -TemperatureEthylene Glycol solution (% by volume)(oF)(oC)253040506065100
-40 -40 1) 1) 1) 1) 1.12 1.13 1)
0 -17.8 1) 1) 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.16
40 4.4 1.048 1.057 1.07 1.088 1.1 1.11 1.145
80 26.7 1.04 1.048 1.06 1.077 1.09 1.095 1.13
120 48.9 1.03 1.038 1.05 1.064 1.077 1.082 1.115
160 71.1 1.018 1.025 1.038 1.05 1.062 1.068 1.1
200 93.3 1.005 1.013 1.026 1.038 1.049 1.054 1.084
240 115.6 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 1.067
280 137.8 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 1.05

listed below freezing point above boiling point

Note! The certain gravity of ethylene glycol based water options are increased contrasted with particular gravity the clean water.

Densities of Ethylene Glycol based Water Solutions

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A heating system with fluid volume 0.8 m3 is freeze protected with 50% (by mass, mass fraction 0.5) ethylene glycol. The installation temperature the the system is down to 0oC and also the maximum tool operation temperature is 80oC.

From the table over we view that the density of the solution at surroundings temperature have the right to be together high as 1090 kg/m3 - and also the medium thickness at procedure temperature can be as low together 1042 kg/m3.

The massive of the liquid at installation deserve to be calculation as

minst = ρinst Vinst (1)

= (1090 kg/m3) (0.8 m3)

= 872 kg

where

minst = massive of fluid at environment (kg)

ρinst = thickness at surroundings (kg/m3)

Vinst = fluid volume in ~ installation (m3)

Mass of the liquid in the system throughout operation will certainly be same as the fixed in system during installation

minst = mop (2)

= ρop Vop

where

mop = fixed of liquid at operation (kg)

ρop = density atoperation (kg/m3)

Vop = fluid volume atoperation (m3)

(2) have the right to be modified to calculate liquid procedure volume as

Vop = minst / ρop (2b)

= (872 kg) / (1042 kg/m3)

= 0.837 m3

The required growth volume to prevent pressure can be calculation as

ΔV = Vop -Vinst (3)

= (0.837 m3) - (0.8 m3)

= 0.037 m3

= 37 liter

where

ΔV = growth volume (m3)

Expansion volume can be calculation as

ΔV = (ρinst / ρop - 1) Vinst (4)

Specific warm of Ethylene Glycol based Water Solutions

Specific warm - cp - of ethylene glycol based water remedies at miscellaneous temperatures are indicated below

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Note! The specific heat that ethylene glycol based water services are less 보다 the certain heat of clean water. Because that a warm transfer mechanism with ethylene glycol the circulated volume have to be increased compared to a system only with water.

In a 50% solution with to work temperatures above 36 the the certain heat capacity is diminished with around 20%. The reduced heat capacity need to be compensated through circulating more fluid.

Note! The thickness of ethylene glycol is higher than water - examine the particular gravity (SG) table above, therefore the net impact on the warm transport capacity is reduced. Instance - the details heat of one ethylene glycol water systems 50% / 50% is 0.815 in ~ 80 that (26.7 oC). Particular gravity at the same conditions is 1.077. The net affect can be estimated to 0.815 * 1.077 = 0.877.

Automobile antifreeze solutions must not be provided in HVAC systems since they save silicates the may reason fouling. Silicates in auto antifreeze are supplied to protect aluminum engine parts.

Note! Distilled or deionized water have to be provided for ethylene glycol solutions. City water may be treated with chlorine which is corrosive.

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Systems for automatic makeup water must not it is in used because a leakage would contaminate the environment and dilute the antifreeze security of the system.

Boiling points Ethylene Glycol Solutions

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