External Reproductive Organs

Penis and also Prepuce 

The stallion’s penis consists of 3 parts: (1) the root or bulb, (2) the body or shaft, (the key part), and also (3) the glans, the enlarged complimentary end of the penis. When not erect, the penis is 50 centimeter long and also 2.5 to 6 cm in diameter v the distal finish 15 to 20 cm cost-free in the prepuce. As soon as erect, the dick doubles in length and thickness and the glans rises by 3 to 4 times. The prepuce or sheath is a twin invagination that the skin the covers the distal portion of the dick when not erect. Check of the penis and prepuce is many conveniently excellent at the time of washing. Permit the stallion to technique the mare in order to be created to let down, in ~ which time the cock extends indigenous the sheath. Practice caution due to the fact that some stallions might be reluctant to be examined and also cow absent or kick backwards in ~ the examiner. Be careful to protect everyone involved. Study the penis and prepuce both manually and also visually. Master the column of the prick just behind the glans. Research the urethral procedure for lesions and the linked structures for debris or other foreign material. The examination proceeds up the tower where any injuries, scars or other lesions space noted. Through the cock exposed, examine the internal and external portion of the prepuce. Normally a small amount of greasy smegma is discovered at the basic of the penis. Any type of trauma or injury to the penis or prepuce have the right to be very detrimental to the stallion’s capacity to covering a mare and also could an outcome in long term psychological problems. This is particularly true if the stallion is kicked by the mare if attempting to breed her. Trauma can likewise occur by improper dealing with of man-made vaginas.

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The scrotum is an outpouching the skin in the inguinal area that encloses the testes. It has actually a longitudinal midline whereby the 2 sacs space fused. The scrotum may be examined at the moment of washing or after ejaculation, which might be much safer for everyone involved. The stallion’s scrotum is not as pendulous together a bull’s and also is organized closer come the abdomen. The scrotum’s skin is soft and also pliable v a greasy texture due to sebaceous glands. The scrotum is essential in thermoregulation of the testicles.

Testicles and Epididymides

The testes space ovoid structures, measuring 8 come 12 cm lengthy by 6 to 7 cm high by 5 centimeter wide. They consist the seminiferous tubules in i m sorry spermatogenesis occurs and also interstitial organization of which the Leydig cells develop testosterone. The testicles must be openly movable within the scrotal sac. The epididymides are separated into 3 parts: (1) head; (2) body and (3) tail. The head the the epididymis is very closely attached come the testicle’s anterior dorsal aspect. The human body of the epididymis continues along the testicle’s ago side until it terminates in ~ the rather large tail that the epididymis the is loosely attached to the testicle’s tail. The testes and epididymides space palpated through the scrotal wall surface to determine their presence, size, symmetry and also consistency. The common stallion has actually two testes. Palpation need to reveal that they have the very same consistency v no abnormalities of shape or texture. The right testis is generally slightly smaller than the left. Determine testicular dimension by measure up scrotal broad of both testicles. Measure scrotal width utilizing calipers in ~ the suggest of greatest width with a nonerect penis. Scrotal width is positively correlated with day-to-day sperm production and also output. Typical scrotal widths variety from 9 come 13 cm. Stallions older than 7 years of age tend to have higher scrotal widths 보다 younger stallions. Specific medications, particularly androgens, adversely impact testicular size. Cryptorchidism is common in stallions and its genetic regulate is not completely understood. The left testicle is the one most frequently retained. Congenital cryptorchid stallions should not be thought about for breeding.

Internal Reproductive Organs

The ductus deferens is the extension of the epididymis and runs indigenous the tail that the epididymis through the inguinal canal come the area that the neck that the bladder. The duct broadens near the bladder to type the ampulla i m sorry acts as a sperm warehouse organ.

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Accessory Sex Glands

The vesicular glands, prostate gland and also bulbourethral glands are collectively called the accessory sex glands. Castle all carry out a section of the seminal fluid, yet are not essential for fertility. These glands are generally rectally palpated. The vesicular glands room usually the most complicated to palpate due to the fact that before teasing they are basically collapsed. However, after ~ vigorous teasing, the vesicles enlarge due to the buildup of the gels portion and are easier to palpate. This is why it might be much more desirable come palpate ~ teasing, however on the various other hand, many stallions are more tractable adhering to ejaculation. So, timing the rectal check is mostly at the examiner’s discretion.