The continuing collapse that the ottoman Empire synchronized with the increase of nationalism in the Balkans, i beg your pardon led to increased tensions and conflicts in the region. This “powder keg” was thus a major catalyst because that the outbreak of world War I.

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Key Points

By the early on 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia had accomplished independence from the ottoman Empire, but big elements of your ethnic populaces remained under ottoman rule. In 1912 these nations formed the Balkan League and declared war on the Ottomans come reclaim territory.Four Balkan states beat the Ottoman empire in the an initial war; one of the four, Bulgaria, experienced defeat in the second war.The tensions and also conflicts in this are regularly referred to together the “Balkan powder keg” and had implications past the region.There to be a variety of overlapping insurance claims to territories and spheres of influence between the significant European powers, such as the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the German realm and, come a lesser degree, the footrest Empire, the unified Kingdom, and Kingdom that Italy.Relations between Austria and also Serbia became increasingly bitter and Russia feeling humiliated ~ Austria and Germany prevented that from helping Serbia.The powder keg at some point “exploded” resulting in the very first World War, which started with a conflict in between imperial Austria-Hungary and Pan-Slavic Serbia.

Key Terms

irredentismAny politics or popular movement intended come reclaim and reoccupy a “lost” or “unredeemed” area; territorial insurance claims are justified on the communication of genuine or imagine national and historic (an area formerly part of that state) or ethnic (an area inhabited by that country or ethnic group) affiliations. That is often advocated by nationalist and pan-nationalist movements and also has to be a function of identification politics and cultural and political geography.BalkansA peninsula and a social area in Southeastern Europe with various and disputed borders. The region takes its surname from the Balkan hills that stretch indigenous the Serbia-Bulgaria border come the black Sea. Disputes here were a significant contributing element to the outbreak that WWI.Pan-SlavismA movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century came to with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic people. Its main affect occurred in the Balkans, whereby non-Slavic empires—the byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the footrest Empire, and also Venice—had rule the south Slavs for centuries.

The “Balkan flour keg,” likewise termed the “powder keg that Europe,” refers to the Balkans in the early part of the 20th century preceding people War I. There were a number of overlapping cases to territories and spheres that influence in between the significant European powers, such together the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the German empire and, come a lesser degree, the ottoman Empire, the joined Kingdom, and also Kingdom that Italy.

In addition to the imperialistic ambitions and also interests in this region, there to be a expansion in nationalism among the indigenous peoples, bring about the formation of the independent says of Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania, and Albania.

Within this nations, there were motions to develop “greater” nations: come enlarge the limits of the state past those areas where the national ethnic team was in the majority (termed irredentism). This brought about conflict between the freshly independent nations and the realm from which castle split, the footrest Empire. Additionally, it caused differences between the Balkan countries who wished to get territory in ~ the cost of their neighbors. Both the dispute with the footrest Empire and also between the Balkan nations brought about the Balkan Wars, debated below.

In a different vein, the ideology of Pan-Slavism in Balkans gained popularity; the activity built approximately it in the region sought come unite all of the Slavs of the Balkans right into one nation, Yugoslavia. This, however, would require the union of several Balkan states and territory that was part of Austria-Hungary. Because that this reason, Pan-Slavism to be strongly opposed by Austria-Hungary, while it was supported by Russia which viewed itself as leader of all Slavic nations.

To complicated matters, in the years preceding human being War I, over there existed a tangle of great Power alliances, both formal and also informal, public and secret. Adhering to the Napoleonic Wars, there existed a “balance of power” come prevent major wars. This theory hosted that opposing combine of strength in Europe would certainly be same matched, entailing that any kind of general war would be far too i have lot of money to danger entering. This system started to loss apart as the footrest Empire, seen as a examine on Russian power, started to crumble, and also as Germany, a loosened confederation of boy states, to be united right into a significant power. Not just did these transforms lead to a realignment the power, yet of interests as well.

All this factors and many rather conspired to bring about the an initial World War. As is insinuated by the name “the flour keg of Europe,” the Balkans were not the major issue at stake in the war, however were the catalyst that caused the conflagration. The Chancellor of Germany in the so late 19th century, rose oil von Bismarck, appropriately predicted it would certainly be the resource of major conflict in Europe.

The powder keg “exploded” resulting in the very first World War, which started with a conflict in between imperial Austria-Hungary and Pan-Slavic Serbia.


Balkan Troubles: Germany, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and also Britain attempting to keep the lid top top the simmering cauldron the imperialist and nationalist stress in the Balkans to protect against a basic European war. They were effective in 1912 and also 1913 yet did not succeed in 1914, bring about the outbreak of world War I.


Balkan Wars

The continuing collapse that the Ottoman empire led to 2 wars in the Balkans, in 1912 and also 1913, which was a prelude to civilization war. By 1900 country states had created in Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and also Serbia. Nevertheless, countless of their ethnic compatriots live under the regulate of the ottoman Empire. In 1912, these nations formed the Balkan League. There were 3 main reasons of the an initial Balkan War. The Ottoman empire was can not to revolutionary itself, administrate satisfactorily, or deal with the climbing ethnic nationalism of its diverse peoples. Secondly, the great Powers quarreled amongst themselves and also failed to ensure that the Ottomans would lug out the needed reforms. This led the Balkan states to i have loaded their very own solution. Most importantly, the members of the Balkan organization were confident the it can defeat the Turks, which would certainly prove to be the case.

The first Balkan War damaged out as soon as the League attacked the Ottoman realm on October 8, 1912, and also was finished seven months later by the treaty of London. After 5 centuries, the Ottoman empire lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans. The Treaty had actually been applied by the an excellent Powers, dissatisfying the victorious Balkan states. Bulgaria was dissatisfied end the department of the spoils in Macedonia, make in secret by its previous allies, Serbia and Greece, and also attacked to force them out of Macedonia, starting the 2nd Balkan War. The Serbian and also Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked into Bulgaria, when Romania and also the ottoman Empire likewise attacked Bulgaria and gained (or regained) territory. In the resulting treaty of Bucharest, Bulgaria shed most that the regions it had gained in the an initial Balkan War.

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The long-term an outcome was heightened anxiety in the Balkans. Relations between Austria and Serbia ended up being increasingly bitter. Russia feel humiliated ~ Austria and Germany prevented the from help Serbia. Bulgaria and Turkey were likewise dissatisfied, and eventually joined Austria and also Germany in the very first World War.