To explain how a covalent bond forms. To use the octet rule to covalent compounds

You have currently seen examples of substances the contain covalent bonds. One substance mentioned previously was water (\\(\\ceH2O\\)). You deserve to tell from its formula the it is no an ionic compound; that is not composed of a metal and also a nonmetal. Consequently, its properties are different from those of ionic compounds.

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Electron Sharing

Previously, we questioned ionic bonding whereby electrons can be moved from one atom to one more so that both atoms have actually an energy-stable outer electron shell. Because most filled electron shells have actually eight electrons in them, hunterriverpei.comists called this tendency the octet rule. However, over there is another means an atom can attain a full valence shell: atoms deserve to share electrons.

This ide can be depicted by using two hydrogen atoms, each of which has a solitary electron in its valence shell. (For small atoms such together hydrogen atoms, the valence covering will be the very first shell, i m sorry holds just two electrons.) We have the right to represent the two individual hydrogen atoms together follows:


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The Lewis diagram of two hydrogen atoms sharing electron looks favor this:


This explicate of molecules is simplified additional by making use of a dash to represent a covalent bond. The hydrogen molecule is then stood for as follows:


Each fluorine atom contributes one valence electron, do a solitary bond and also giving every atom a complete valence shell, i m sorry fulfills the octet rule:


The circles show that each fluorine atom has actually eight electrons about it. As with hydrogen, we deserve to represent the fluorine molecule through a dash in place of the bonding electrons:



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In this molecule, the hydrogen atom go not have nonbonding electrons, if the fluorine atom has actually six nonbonding electrons (three lone electron pairs). The circles display how the valence electron shells are filled for both atoms.

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Use Lewis diagrams to indicate the development of the following:

Cl2 HBr


a. Once two chlorine atoms type a chlorine molecule, lock share one pair that electrons. In Cl2 molecule, every chlorine atom is surrounding by an octet number of electrons.

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The Lewis diagram for a Cl2 molecule is similar to the one because that F2 (shown above).