6.3 Covalent bonding (ESABT)

The nature of the covalent shortcut (ESABU)

Covalent bonding occurs in between the atom of non-metals. The outermost orbitals that the atoms overlap so the unpaired electrons in each of the bonding atoms have the right to be shared. Through overlapping orbitals, the outer power shells of all the bonding atoms space filled. The mutual electrons relocate in the orbitals about both atoms. Together they move, there is one attraction in between these negatively charged electrons and the positively charged nuclei. This attractive force holds the atoms together in a covalent bond.

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Covalent shortcut

Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding wherein pairs that electrons are shared between atoms.

You will have noticed in Table 6.1 the the variety of electrons the are involved in bonding varies between atoms.

There is a relationship in between the valency of an element and also its place on the periodic table. For the elements in groups 1 and 2, the valency is the team number. For the elements in teams 13–18, the valency is the group number minus 10. For the change metals, the valency can vary. In these instances we suggest the valency by a roman numeral after the aspect name, e.g. Stole (III) chloride.

We have the right to say the following:

A single covalent link is formed when two electrons room shared between the same two atoms, one electron from every atom.

A double covalent shortcut is developed when four electrons are shared between the exact same two atoms, two electrons from each atom.

A triple covalent link is created when six electrons space shared between the same two atoms, 3 electrons from every atom.

You should also have noticed the compounds have the right to have a mixture of single, twin and triple bonds and also that one atom have the right to have numerous bonds. In other words, an atom does not need to share all its valence electrons v one various other atom, however can re-publishing its valence electrons through several different atoms.

We say that the valency that the atoms is different.


The number of electrons in the external shell of one atom which room able come be used to kind bonds with various other atoms.

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Below are a few examples. Remember the it is only the valence electrons the are associated in bonding and so once diagrams are drawn to show what is happening during bonding, the is just these electron that are shown.

Worked example 1: Covalent bonding

How do hydrogen and also chlorine atoms bond covalently in a molecule the hydrogen chloride?

Determine the electron construction of every of the bonding atoms

A chlorine atom has actually 17 electrons and also an electron configuration of (< extNe>3 exts^23 extp^5). A hydrogen atom has only one electron and also an electron configuration of (1 exts^1).

Determine how numerous of the electrons are paired or unpaired

Chlorine has seven valence electrons. One of these electrons is unpaired. Hydrogen has actually one valence electron and also it is unpaired.

Work out exactly how the electrons are shared

The hydrogen atom demands one much more electron to complete its outermost power level. The chlorine atom also needs one an ext electron to complete its outermost energy level. As such one pair that electrons should be shared between the two atoms. A single covalent bond will be formed.


Worked instance 2: Covalent bonding involving multiple bonds

How perform nitrogen and hydrogen atoms bond to type a molecule of ammonia (( extNH_3))?

Give the electron configuration

A nitrogen atom has actually seven electrons, and an electron configuration of (< extHe>2 exts^22 extp^3). A hydrogen atom has only one electron, and an electron construction of (1 exts^1).

Give the number of valence electrons

Nitrogen has five valence electrons. Three of these electrons room unpaired. Hydrogen has one valence electron and it is unpaired.

Work out just how the electrons space shared

Each hydrogen atom requirements one much more electron to finish its valence energy shell. The nitrogen atom requirements three more electrons to complete its valence power shell. Thus three pairs of electrons must be shared in between the 4 atoms involved. Three solitary covalent bonds will certainly be formed.


Worked example 3: Covalent bonding entailing a double bond

How perform oxygen atoms bond covalently to form an oxygen molecule?

Determine the electron configuration of the bonding atoms.

Each oxygen atom has actually eight electrons, and their electron configuration is (< extHe>2 exts^22 extp^4).

Determine the number of valence electrons for each atom and how countless of this electrons space paired and unpaired.

Each oxygen atom has actually six valence electrons. Every atom has two unpaired electrons.

Work out exactly how the electrons are shared

Each oxygen atom needs two an ext electrons to complete its valence energy shell. Therefore two pairs of electrons have to be shared in between the 2 oxygen atoms so the both outermost energy levels space full. A dual bond is formed.


Properties the covalent link (ESABV)

Covalent compounds have several nature that differentiate them native ionic compounds and also metals. These properties are:

The melting and also boiling point out of covalent compound are normally lower 보다 those of ionic compounds.

Covalent compounds room generally much more flexible than ionic compounds. The molecules in covalent compounds are able come move roughly to some extent and can occasionally slide over each other (as is the instance with graphite, i m sorry is why the command in your pencil feels slightly slippery). In ionic compounds, all the ions are tightly hosted in place.

Covalent compounds generally are not really soluble in water, for example plastics room covalent compounds and many plastics are water resistant.

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Covalent compounds generally do no conduct electrical energy when liquified in water, for instance iodine liquified in pure water does not conduct electricity.

Covalent bonding

Textbook practice 6.2

Explain the difference between the valence electrons and also the valency of one element.