MARSHA BARBER and also DIANA SCHEIDLE BARTOS

INTRODUCTION

PALEONTOLOGY, and also in particular the examine of dinosaurs, is an exciting topic to people of every ages. Although most attention in today\"s human being focuses ~ above dinosaurs and why they came to be extinct, the people of paleontology contains many other interesting organisms which phone call us around Earth\"s previous history. The research of fossils and the expedition of what they tell scientists around past climates and also environments on earth can be an exciting study because that students of every ages.

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Teaching around Earth\"s history is a an obstacle for every teachers. Time factors of millions and also billions of years is difficult even for adult to comprehend. However, \"relative\" date or time have the right to be an easy concept for students come learn.In this activity, students begin a sequencing task with familiar items — letters created on cards. Once they room able come manipulate the cards into the correct sequence, they are asked to carry out a comparable sequencing activity using fossil pictures printed ~ above \"rock layer\" cards. Sequencing the rock layers will display students how paleontologists use fossils to provide relative days to rock strata.Once students begin to understand \"relative\" dating, castle can expand their understanding of geologic time by exploring radiometric dating and also developing a timeline that Earth\"s history. These significant concepts are component of the Denver earth Science Project\"s \"Paleontology and Dinosaurs\" module composed for students in grades 7-10. The module is an integrated unit which addresses the following National Science education and learning Standards:*Science together Inquiry: Students construct the abilities vital to carry out scientific inquiry — recognize questions, design and also conduct clinical investigations, use proper tools and also technologies to gather, analyze and also interpret data, think critically and also logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations, interact results, and use math in all facets of clinical inquiry. *Life Science: Fossils show that many organisms that live long ago are extinct. Extinct of varieties is common; most of the types that have actually lived ~ above the planet no much longer exist. *Earth and space Science: Fossils provide important evidence of exactly how life and also environmental conditions have changed.The finish \"Paleontology and also Dinosaurs\" module takes approximately four weeks to teach. The \"Who\"s on First?\" activity is a 30-minute advent to geologic time.

WHO\"S top top FIRST? relative DATING (Student Activity)

INTRODUCTIONScientists have great evidence the the earth is really old, approximately four and one-half billion years old. Scientific dimensions such as radiometric dating use the natural radioactivity of particular elements uncovered in rocks to assist determine your age. Scientists additionally use straight evidence from monitorings of the rock layers us to assist determine the relative age of absent layers. Particular rock formations are indicative that a particular kind of environment existing as soon as the rock to be being formed. Because that example, most limestones represent marine environments, whereas, sandstones with ripple marks might indicate a shoreline habitat or a riverbed. Return to topThe study and also comparison that exposed rock layers or strata in various parts the the planet led researchers in the beforehand 19th century come propose that the rock layers could be correlated from ar to place. Locally, physical features of rocks have the right to be compared and correlated. On a bigger scale, even between continents, fossil evidence can aid in correlating absent layers. The law of Superposition, which states that in one undisturbed horizontal succession of rocks, the earliest rock layers will certainly be ~ above the bottom, with successively younger rocks on height of these, helps geologists correlate rock layers roughly the world. This also method that fossils uncovered in the lowest levels in a succession of layered rocks stand for the earliest record of life there. By corresponding partial sequences, the truly oldest layers through fossils have the right to be operated out.By correlating fossils from miscellaneous parts that the world, scientists are may be to provide relative periods to particular strata. This is referred to as relative dating. Family member dating tells researchers if a absent layer is \"older\" or \"younger\" 보다 another. This would additionally mean that fossils uncovered in the deepest class of rocks in an area would represent the oldest forms of life in that certain rock formation. In reading planet history, these layers would certainly be \"read\" indigenous bottom to optimal or oldest to most recent. If specific fossils are commonly found only in a details rock unit and are uncovered in countless places worldwide, they may be useful as index or overview fossils in determining the age of undated strata. By making use of this details from absent formations in miscellaneous parts the the world and correlating the studies, scientists have been maybe to establish the geologic time scale. This family member time scale divides the substantial amount that earth history into various sections based on geological occasions (sea encroachments, mountain-building, and also depositional events), and also notable organic events (appearance, loved one abundance, or die out of certain life forms).Objectives: when you complete this activity, you will be maybe to: (1) sequence details using items which overlap specific sets; (2) said sequencing come the regulation of Superposition; and also (3) display how fossils can be provided to give relative dates to rock layers.Materials: 2 sets of succession cards in arbitrarily order (set A: rash syllables; collection B: sketches the fossils), pencil, paperProcedure set A:1) spread the cards through the rash syllables top top the table and determine the exactly sequence of the eight cards through comparing letter that are common to individual cards and, therefore, overlap. The very first card in the sequence has \"Card 1, collection A\" in the lower left-hand corner and represents the bottom that the sequence. If the letter \"T\" and \"C\" represent fossils in the earliest rock layer, they space the oldest fossils, or the first fossils created in the past for this sequence of rock layers.2. Now, look for a map that has actually either a \"T\" or \"C\" written on it. Since this card has a typical letter with the an initial card, it should go on top of the \"TC\" card. The fossils represented by the letter on this card are \"younger\" than the \"T\" or \"C\" fossils top top the \"TC\" map which to represent fossils in the oldest rock layer. Sequence the staying cards by using the exact same process. As soon as you finish, friend should have a vertical ridge of cards with the peak card representing the youngest fossils that this rock sequence and also the \"TC\" map at the bottom the the stack representing the earliest fossils.Interpretation Questions:1) ~ you have arranged the cards in order, write your succession of letters (using each letter just once) ~ above a separate item of paper. Beginning with the peak card, the letters should be in order from youngest to oldest.2) how do you recognize that \"X\" is older than \"M\"?3) describe why \"D\" in the rock layer represented by DM is the same period as \"M.\"4) describe why \"D\" in the absent layer stood for by OXD is older than \"D\" in the absent layer represented by DM. Return to topProcedure collection B:1) closely examine the 2nd set that cards which have actually sketches that fossils on them. Each card represents a particular rock layer v a arsenal of fossils the are discovered in that certain rock stratum. Every one of the fossils represented would be found in sedimentary rocks of marine origin. Figure 2-A gives some background info on the individual fossils.2) The earliest rock layer is marked with the letter \"M\" in the lower left-hand corner. The letters on the various other cards have actually no definition to the sequencing procedure and also should be ignored in ~ this time. Find a rock layer that contends least one of the fossils you discovered in the earliest rock layer. This absent layer would be younger as suggested by the appearance of new fossils in the absent stratum. Keep in mind the extinction is forever. When an biology disappears indigenous the succession it cannot reappear later. Usage this info to succession the cards in a vertical stack of fossils in rock strata. Arrange them from oldest to youngest with the earliest layer ~ above the bottom and also the youngest on top.Interpretation Questions:1) making use of the letters published in the reduced left-hand corner of each card, write the sequence of letters from the youngest layer come the oldest layer (i.e., native the optimal of the vertical stack to the bottom). This will permit your teacher come quickly inspect whether you have the correct sequence. 2) i m sorry fossil organisms could possibly be offered as table of contents fossils? 3) Name three organisms stood for that probably could not be supplied as table of contents fossils and also explain why. 4) In what type of rocks might you uncover the fossils native this activity? 5) State the regulation of Superposition and explain how this activity illustrates this law.Figure 2-A. Sketches of maritime Fossil biology (Not come Scale)
BrachiopodTrilobiteEurypterid
NAME: BrachiopodPHYLUM: BrachiopodaDESCRIPTION: \"Lampshells\"; exclusively marine organisms through soft bodies and also bivalve shells; countless living speciesNAME: TrilobitePHYLUM: ArthropodaDESCRIPTION: Three-lobed body; burrowing, crawling, and swimming forms; extinctNAME: EurypteridPHYLUM: ArthropodaDESCRIPTION: many were big (a couple of rare species were 5 feet in length); crawling and swimming forms; extinct
Graptolite\"HornCrinoid
NAME: GraptolitePHYLUM: ChordataDESCRIPTION: Primitive type of chordate; floating type with branched stalks; extinctNAME: Horn coralPHYLUM: Coelenterata (Cnidaria)DESCRIPTION: Jellyfish family member with stony (Cnidaria)(calcareous) exoskeleton found in reef environments; extinctNAME: CrinoidPHYLUM: EchinodermataDESCRIPTION: Multibranched family member of starfish; lives attached to the s bottom; some living types (\"sea lilies\")
PlacodermForaminiferaGastropod
NAME: PlacodermPHYLUM: VertebrataDESCRIPTION: Primitive armored fish; extinctNAME: Foraminifera (microscopic type)PHYLUM: Protozoa (Sarcodina)DESCRIPTION: Shelled, amoeba-like organismNAME: GastropodPHYLUM: MolluscaDESCRIPTION: Snails and relatives; countless living species
PelecypodAmmoniteIchthyosaur
NAME: PelecypodPHYLUM: MolluscaDESCRIPTION: Clams and also oysters; many living speciesNAME: AmmonitePHYLUM: MolluscaDESCRIPTION: Squid-like animal with coiled, chambered shell; related to contemporary NautilusNAME: IcthyosaurPHYLUM: VertebrataDESCRIPTION: Carnivore; air-breathing aquatic animal; extinct
\"Shark\"s
NAME: Shark\"s toothPHYLUM: VertebrataDESCRIPTION: Cartilage fish; countless living species
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WHO\"S ~ above FIRST? relative DATING (Teacher Version)

INTRODUCTION
Scientists have an excellent evidence the the earth is an extremely old, approximately four and also one-half billion years old. Scientific dimensions such together radiometric dating use the organic radioactivity of specific elements uncovered in rocks to help determine your age. Scientists also use straight evidence from observations of the absent layers us to help determine the relative age of absent layers. Details rock formations are indicative that a particular form of setting existing as soon as the rock was being formed. For example, many limestones represent maritime environments, whereas, sandstones through ripple marks could indicate a shoreline habitat or a riverbed.The study and also comparison that exposed rock layers or strata in miscellaneous parts the the earth led scientists in the at an early stage 19th century come propose that the rock layers can be associated from place to place. Locally, physical qualities of rocks have the right to be compared and correlated. ~ above a bigger scale, even in between continents, fossil evidence can help in correlating absent layers. The regulation of Superposition, which says that in an undisturbed horizontal succession of rocks, the oldest rock layers will certainly be ~ above the bottom, with successively younger rocks on optimal of these, help geologists correlate absent layers approximately the world. This also means that fossils discovered in the lowest levels in a succession of layered rocks stand for the oldest record the life there. By corresponding partial sequences, the truly earliest layers through fossils can be operated out.By correlating fossils from miscellaneous parts of the world, scientists are able to provide relative periods to certain strata. This is referred to as relative dating. Loved one dating tells researchers if a absent layer is \"older\" or \"younger\" 보다 another. This would also mean that fossils discovered in the deepest great of rocks in one area would represent the oldest forms of life in that details rock formation. In reading earth history, these layers would certainly be \"read\" from bottom to height or earliest to most recent. If specific fossils are commonly found only in a particular rock unit and also are discovered in countless places worldwide, they may be beneficial as index or overview fossils in determining the period of undated strata. By using this information from absent formations in various parts of the world and correlating the studies, scientists have actually been maybe to create the geologic time scale. This family member time scale divides the vast amount of earth history into miscellaneous sections based on geological events (sea encroachments, mountain-building, and also depositional events), and notable biological events (appearance, family member abundance, or die out of particular life forms).Objectives: when you finish this activity, you will certainly be maybe to: (1) sequence info using items i beg your pardon overlap details sets; (2) relate sequencing come the legislation of Superposition; and (3) present how fossils deserve to be provided to provide relative days to absent layers.

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Materials: 2 sets of sequence cards in random order (set A: nonsense syllables; collection B: sketches the fossils), pencil, paperTEACHER SUGGESTIONSThe cards in collection A space composed of nonsense syllables. The rash syllables or letters periodically overlap other cards and are being supplied to present the students to the ide of sequencing. The cards should be duplicated, laminated, and cut into sets and also randomly blended when offered to the students. That is recommended the students complete Procedure collection A and also answer the linked Interpretation concerns correctly before proceeding to set B.The cards in set B stand for rock great containing various fossils. For collection B, you may want to shade code each organism kind (i.e., color the trilobites blue) prior to you laminate and cut the cards apart. Sequencing the absent layers will show the students just how paleontologists usage fossils to give relative dates to rock strata. Return to topTo boost this activity, have actually students enhance the fossil sketches to real fossils. You might use fossils from the john Hanley Fossil teaching Set. To inquiry a Fossil to teach Set, speak to the Geology Museum in ~ the Colorado school of Mines (303) 273-3815. The complying with is a perform of fossils in the john Hanley Fossil Teaching collection that may be advantageous in this activity. Brachiopod VGastropod VI-2 Trilobite VIIIPelecypod VI-1 Graptolite XAmmonite VI-3b Corals IIIa, IIIbShark\"s tooth XI-1a Crinoids IXa, IxbForaminifera IFigure 2-B illustrates a hypothetical stratigraphic ar of rocks which encompass fossil assemblages represented in collection B. It might be advantageous to share through students after ~ they have completed collection B and also answered the interpretation Questions.Procedure Set A:1) spread the cards with the rash syllables top top the table and determine the exactly sequence that the eight cards through comparing letters that are typical to separation, personal, instance cards and, therefore, overlap. The an initial card in the sequence has actually \"Card 1, set A\" in the reduced left-hand corner and represents the bottom that the sequence. If the letters \"T\" and \"C\" stand for fossils in the earliest rock layer, they room the oldest fossils, or the first fossils created in the past for this sequence of absent layers.2) Now, look because that a map that has actually either a \"T\" or \"C\" created on it. Because this card has actually a usual letter with the very first card, it must go on top of the \"TC\" card. The fossils represented by the letters on this card are \"younger\" 보다 the \"T\" or \"C\" fossils on the \"TC\" card which to represent fossils in the oldest rock layer. Sequence the staying cards by utilizing the exact same process. As soon as you finish, you should have actually a vertical ridge of cards with the optimal card representing the youngest fossils the this rock sequence and the \"TC\" card at the bottom of the ridge representing the oldest fossils.Interpretation Questions:1) after ~ you have arranged the cards in order, write your sequence of letter (using every letter only once) on a separate item of paper. Beginning with the height card, the letters must be in order native youngest come oldest. The correct sequence of letters for the cards in collection A indigenous youngest to oldest rock strata is MDXONBUAGCT. Please keep in mind that no one of the letters in this sequence may be reversed and still it is in correct. The sequence should be specifically in the order together written. The is not unusual to have actually students reverse the M and also D for example and also begin the sequence v DM due to the fact that that is the means they are printed on the card. That is good at this time to repeat them the these letters stand for fossils in a rock layer and also that one fossil following to one more within a absent layer suggests no specific sequencing; castle both are roughly the same period as that certain rock layer. The adhering to question may assist clarify this point.2) just how do you understand that \"X\" is older than \"M\"? \"X\" is older 보다 \"M\" due to the fact that it shows up in one older absent strata (i.e., the card beneath the \"DM\" card). \"M\" is not present in the card below it in the stack and also is, therefore, younger.3) define why \"D\" in the rock layer represented by DM is the same period as \"M.\" since fossils D and M died and were deposit in the very same rock layer, lock both are the same age as the absent layer.4) explain why \"D\" in the rock layer stood for by OXD is older than \"D\" in the rock layer stood for by DM. Using the regulation of Superposition, the absent layer OXD is beneath absent layer DM and, therefore, is older. The fossils within rock layer OXD (i.e., fossils O, X, and D) are older than the fossils in the layer above it (i.e., D and M in absent layer DM). Therefore, D in the absent layer OXD is older than D in the rock layer DM.Procedure Set B:1) carefully examine the second set the cards which have actually sketches the fossils on them. Each map represents a details rock layer v a collection of fossils the are found in that specific rock stratum. Every one of the fossils stood for would be discovered in sedimentary rocks of naval origin. Number 2-A provides some background details on the individual fossils.2) The earliest rock great is marked with the letter \"M\" in the reduced left-hand corner. The letter on the other cards have actually no definition to the sequencing procedure and also should be ignored in ~ this time. Discover a absent layer that has at least among the fossils you found in the earliest rock layer. This absent layer would be younger as shown by the figure of new fossils in the rock stratum. Keep in mind the extinction is forever. Once an biology disappears native the succession it cannot reappear later. Use this info to succession the cards in a vertical ridge of fossils in rock strata. Arrange lock from oldest to youngest through the earliest layer top top the bottom and the youngest top top top. Go back to topInterpretation Questions:1) utilizing the letters printed in the reduced left-hand corner of each card, create the sequence of letter from the youngest layer come the oldest layer (i.e., from the peak of the vertical ridge to the bottom). This will permit your teacher come quickly check whether you have the correct sequence. 2) i beg your pardon fossil organisms could possibly be offered as table of contents fossils? The graptolite, placoderm, ammonite, ichthyosaur, and also shark\"s tooth could possibly be offered as table of contents fossils due to the fact that they are discovered in only one layer. Technically, however, offered only this collection of strata, one can not say the the shark\"s tooth and ichthyosaur can be supplied as table of contents fossils because we do not understand if they continue in younger absent layers above this set of strata.3) Name 3 organisms represented that probably could not be offered as table of contents fossils and also explain why. The brachiopod, crinoid, eurypterid, foraminifera, gastropod, horn coral, pelecypod, and also trilobite could probably not be provided as index fossils due to the fact that they overlap more than one stratum. 4) In what type of rocks could you find the fossils indigenous this activity? maritime sedimentary rocks such as limestone, shale, and also sandstone can contain fossils similar to those depicted in this activity.5) State the law of Superposition and explain how this activity illustrates this law. In a \"normal\" horizontal sequence of rocks, the earliest rock layers will certainly be on the bottom with successively younger rocks on top. This task illustrates this law due to the fact that when the cards are placed in the exactly order, the vertical stack reflects the earliest fossils in a absent layer in the bottom that the stack and the youngest fossils in rock stratum ~ above the top.Figure 2-B. Stratigraphic ar for set B\"Figure return to topSet A\"FigureSet B\"Figure\"Figure return to top