Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a polar moleculebecause the the electronegativity difference in between Oxygen and Nitrogen and likewise irregularbent geometry of NO2 molecule as result of the existence of a pair that nonbondingelectrons top top the main nitrogen atom. Therefore, both N-O bonds polarity inNitrogen Dioxide is no canceled by each other as a molecule is asymmetrical.

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Detailed Explanation: Why is NO2 a Polar molecule?

Nitrogen Dioxide which chemistry formula is NO2. Largely usesin the manufacturing of fertilizer because it is a significant component of chlorophyll. It greatly acts as an oxidizing agent in the oxidization reactions together it belongs come oneof the very reactive teams of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and also its oxidation numberis +4.


Before going more into its polarity nature, let"s knowsome straightforward ideas about what polar and nonpolar molecules are,

Polar Molecules

Polar molecules room simply identified as the presence of polarbonds within the molecule or have actually irregular geometry (not symmetry structure), therefore the network dipole moment of the molecule is not zero together the facility of gravity ofnegative charge and also positive fee is be separate by a little distance. In theabsence the an electric field, the moment of polar molecule in dielectric substances room randomly oriented however under the affect of the electric field it tends toalign along the direction of the field.

These molecules are provided to show little ioniccharacteristics i.e. They are soluble in water, can conduct electricity, havestrong electrostatic force and many more.

Examples of Polar molecules: Water (H2O), Hydrochloric acid(HCl), Ammonia (NH3), etc.

Nonpolar Molecules

Nonpolar molecule are just pure covalent external inspection moleculeswith shared sharing the electrons and have net dipole moment zero. Together there areno incident of partial positive and negative charge ~ above the atoms due to the fact that of the exact same electronegativity difference in between the atoms (Diatomic molecules favor H2,O2, N2, etc) or molecule has continuous geometry (symmetrical molecules prefer CCl4,CO2 etc) therefore bond polarities space canceled by each other.

When Nonpolar molecule are put in an electrical field, thecenter of heaviness of confident charge move in the direction the the field, and also the facility of the gravity of an unfavorable charge moves in the opposite direction. This separation in between positiveand an unfavorable charges proceeds until the used external force and also internalforce room balanced.

Example that Nonpolar molecules: all diatomic molecule (H2,N2, O2, Cl2, etc.), Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), etc.

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Polar or Nonpolar (Basis that Characteristics)

NO2 is a polar molecule and also the Oxygen atom closest tonegative side as the electronegativity that Oxygen (3.44) is comparatively greaterthan Nitrogen (3.04) so the Nitrogen has actually a partial positive charge and Oxygenhas a partial negative charge established within the molecule.

These are several of the attributes of Nitrogen Dioxide toprove why NO2 is thought about as a polar molecule,

Electronegativity Difference

Electronegativity is the tendency to entice shared pair ofelectrons of an atom in ~ a molecule. NO2 has actually two distinct aspects Nitrogenand Oxygen, have E.N 3.04 and also 3.44 respectively.

According come Pauli Scale, the electronegativity difference in between two atom in a molecule is in ~ 0.4 to 1.7, that is thought about a polarmolecule if the bond polarity is no canceled. In this case, the electronegativitydifference between Oxygen and Nitrogen is 0.4 which indicates the molecule ispolar.

Also Read: Is XeF4 Polar or Nonpolar?

Lewis framework & molecular Geometry

In NO2, a complete of 17 valence electrons participating is inmolecule development in i m sorry one lone electron does not get involved in bonding.This extra electron ~ above the nitrogen atom exerts repulsion on both Oxygen atomsresulting in bent molecular geometry of Nitrogen Dioxide.


Due come the presence of unbonded electrons on the nitrogen atom, theOxygen atoms are widely spread out as result the bond edge is 134.3°instead ofidle 120°. This renders the molecule asymmetrical, for this reason bond polarity go notcancel by every other.

Dipole Moment

Dipole moment arises as soon as the electronegativity difference in between two atoms together a result of the development of a partial hopeful chargeon the less electronegative atom and also partial negative charge on the higherelectronegative atom.

Here in this situation there is a difference in E.N and also alsomolecular geometry is irregular (asymmetrical) so the the network dipole minute isnot zero. The net dipole moment is calculated together a product the distance in between theatoms and partial charge on either one of the atoms (neglect confident or negativesign).

Electron Density

Electron density is the probability of an electron beingpresent at a specialized location. But if over there is one electronegativity differencebetween two atoms in a molecule, the electron density is higher towards thehigher E.N atom. Which reasons a slightly partial an adverse on the adjacent atom and also a slightly partial optimistic charge on the the opposite atom bring away place.

Solubility Principle

As we know, Polar molecules room soluble in polar solventsand Nonpolar molecules room soluble in Nonpolar solvents in most cases (someexceptions constantly exist). Moreover, pure covalent (Nonpolar) molecules are notsoluble in water yet No2 is dissolve in water and many various other polar solvents.

Sources that Nitrogen Dioxide

The major source the NO2 is the burning of fossil fuel whichincludes coal, petrol, gas, diesel, and different fuels. The is likewise producedsynthetically at the moment of the explosion, welding, petrol refining. That is naturalsources room volcanoes, lightning strikes, oceans, organic decay.

This has slowly become a danger for life organisms on earthas every year we are adding much more than 30 million loads of Nitrogen Dioxide to the environment in the kind of pollutants.

Properties of NO2 Molecules

1. No2 has a Melting point of -9.3°C and a Boiling allude of 21.15°C.At greater temperatures, it is a reddish-brown gas.

2. NO2 is dimerized, acidic in nature, electron-withdrawinggroup, paramagnetic, meta directing.

3. Nitrogen Dioxide is a toxicity gas because it is dissolve inwater vapor and also so the it can quickly enter within the lung v inhalationand hydrolysis come nitrous and also nitric acid in kind of totally free radicals which cause Pulmonaryedema and inflammation of the bronchioles.

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Uses that Nitrogen Dioxide

Mostly uses for the production of fertilizer in largeamounts.uses for the preparation of nitric acid and also sulphuric acidin the laboratory.As a catalyst in countless chemical reaction of oxidation and also alsoused as a strong oxidizing agent.For distillation to avoid polymerization the acrylates.It is used in spacecraft mainly as a rocket fuel since ofit"s high combustion capacity.It is typically used together a bleaching agent.