Presentation top top theme: "Air Masses An wait mass is a big section that the troposphere v uniform temperature and moisture in the horizontal. Humidity Content developed over water:"— Presentation transcript:




You are watching: Large sections of troposphere with same temperature and humidity

1 wait Masses An wait mass is a huge section that the troposphere with uniform temperature and also moisture in the horizontal. Humidity Content formed over water: Maritime developed over land: continental Temperature Cold wait mass: Arctic Cool waiting mass: Polar warm air mass: Tropical naval Arctic – mA naval Polar – mP naval Tropical – mT continent Arctic – cA continent Polar – cP continental Tropical - cT

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2 locations of waiting Mass development Air mass type is determined by the area over which the air has stagnated.

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3 (Or mA)

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4 air Mass movement and alteration Air masses deserve to move from their formation zone by advection (wind) and be modified by temperature or water content. The shift takes ar slowly and it have the right to take days to weeks before the whole air massive is transformed.

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6 wait Masses that Canada continental Arctic: cA –not in summer; low water content; warmed from below, strong winds produce turbulence; heap clouds and snow showers; hardly ever in B.C. Except as a cold-air invasion (Continental Polar: cP) no according come Air Command Weather hand-operated Maritime Arctic: mA –starts together cA the spends some time over the north Pacific ocean; moist and also unstable in ~ high altitudes; stratocumulus and also cumulus; pe/sn/-shra; Summer: northern lakes impact air mass maritime Polar: mP –more time spent over Pacific ocean; warmer in reduced levels; more stable 보다 mA; orographic lifting renders rain west that mountains and also dry east of mountains; Summer: Tsra/Cb marine Tropical: mT –very warm and also moist; Gulf that Mexico, Caribbean & southern of 30°N; Winter: seldom at surface N of an excellent lakes, however present in ~ high altitudes; unstable as soon as Frontal lift; sn/ra/zr/icing and turbulence; FOG (east coast); Summer: shra/tsra

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7 FRONTS vs wait MASSES (ARTIC FRONT) (Maritime Front) (POLAR FRONT) Winter: mT moves far south and Canada typically only sees continental arctic front and maritime arctic front. Summer: cA moves far north (or disappears) and also we only see marine Arctic front or marine Polar prior

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8 Pg 6-7 cA mA mP mT TROPOPAUSE

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9 POLAR FRONTS The transition zone between two air masses is dubbed a front.

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11 Fronts named by the activity of the cold air: –Cold Front: that section of the front whereby the cold air is proceeding –Warm Front: that part of the front wherein the cold wait is retreating –Stationary Front: the cold air is neither advancing nor retreating. –Occluded Fronts and Trowals: trough of heat air aloft.

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12 Fronts found about a cold airmass

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13 development of Fronts Fronts are constantly located in troughs of low pressure in between two different air masses. 1.1. 2.2.3.

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14 rate of Fronts The speed of the prior is same to the component of the geostrophic wind (parallel come isobars) in the cold wait mass that is perpendicular to the front. 25 kts 15 kts 20 kts 10 kts

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15 FRONTS

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16 Cold Fronts has actually a fairly steep frontal slope has tendency to elevator the heat air increase (like a wedge) Clouds room of the vertical advancement category. Cu, TCu, Acc, Cb Showery precipitation is most likely near the front.

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17 The Cold prior Factors: moisture of the warmth air mass stability of the warmth air massive speed and steepness the the frontal surface Wind: veers, part gusts Temperature: drops Visibility: improves after passage Pressure: pull close front, pressure will drop, then increase after i Turbulence: usually connected with Cb’s severe Cb’s deserve to spawn tornados and also hail Precipitation: showery in character, generally a narrow band 50 n.m. ColdWarm

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18 heat Fronts has actually a relatively shallow frontal slope. Heat air overruns the cold waiting mass (moves up slope) Clouds gradually readjust from Ci, to Cs, come As, to St and also Ns together the prior approaches. Continuous precipitation is most likely within 400 mile of the front. Heat air fixed is stable

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19 embedded Thunderstorms If the warm air mass is moist and unstable thunderstorms can type within the common clouds associated with the warmth front. Warm air fixed is unstable embedded Cb

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20 The warmth Front Factors: MoistureDegree of overrunning security Wind: Veers Frontal Slope: 1 in 150 to 1 in 200 Temperature: steady rise Visibility: short ceiling and also low visibility; fog Pressure: drop, then increase Turbulence: usually tiny Precipitation: steady precipitation CI, CS, AS, NS Cold heat

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21 Winter warm Front = freeze Rain! KaBoom If girlfriend encounter ice pellets, the freeze rain is over you and also ahead of friend in the direction the the front.

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23 Frontal Slopes The steep of a warm front is roughly 1:200 (meaning the rises 1 foot vertically for every 200 feet horizontally) The slope of a cold prior is between 1:50 to 1:100 depening ~ above the speed of the front. A really fast moving cold prior may have a vertical slope in the reduced thousand feet resulting in severe weather because of rapid uplifting the the warm airmass. Warm Front typical Cold Front quick moving Cold front

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24 WIND SHEAR
heat FRONT plane in trip will cross the former in advance of a warmth front and also behind a cold front (when the fronts are portrayed at their surface ar positions).

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25 Frontogenesis and Frontolysis Frontogenesis – The formation or increase of a front Frontolysis – The dissipation or weakening that a front tiny graves!

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26 7-16 Frontogenesis and also 7-18 Frontolysis 12 3 4 56

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27 FRONTAL wave

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28 Cold sector upper wind FRONTAL WAVE heat sector surface ar wind Cold sector surface wind heat sector upper wind heat sector high level wind TROWAL / (OCCLUSION)

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29 TROWALS chap.8-12

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30 chillier Cold warm OCCLUSION or Occluded front

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31 Frontal passage Temperature: Temperature will tend to climb after a warm front passes and fall ~ a cold front passes. (there are always exceptions to this rules). Dew point: Will climb after warm front passes and fall ~ cold prior passes. Visibilities: visibility regularly improves through the passage of a cold front.

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34 JET present Pg 12-11 Pg 12-13

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35 Jet Streams promptly flowing streams that air embedded within the main airflow. Usually hundreds of miles long, a couple of hundred mile wide, and a few thousand feet thick. Minimum wind rate to qualify as a Jet is 60 knots.

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36 Jet Streams and also Fronts Jet Streams about follow frontal waves. Temperatures to the north of a jet stream will certainly be colder. (and warmer to the south)

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37 JET present

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38 Jet Stream disturbance (CAT) Looking in ~ the jet native west to eastern (looking downwind), this reflects the most turbulent areas.

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39 low Level Nocturnal Jet 40-65 KNOTS Pg 11-13 Summer, frequently over the prairies on clear night. Paper of wind 700 come 2000 agl begins around dusk and peaks in beforehand morning. Wind shear is significant problem.

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Speeds too much for isobar spacing.

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