What space Alkanes?

Alkanes are organic compounds that consist that single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms. The formula because that Alkanes is CnH2n+2, subdivided into three teams – chain alkanes, cycloalkanes, and also the branched alkanes.

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Alkanes are made up of a series of compounds the contain carbon and also hydrogen atoms with single covalent bonds. This group of compounds consists of carbon and also hydrogen atoms with solitary covalent bonds. Also, comprises a homologous collection having a molecular formula of C nH2n+2.

The simplest family members of link are dubbed alkanes. Lock contain only carbon and hydrogen. Every carbon atom forms four bonds and also each hydrogen atom forms one bond. Chemists use line-angle formulas because they room easier and faster to attract than condensed structural formulas. Structure formulas because that alkanes deserve to be created in yet one more condensed form.

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Hydrocarbons

The simple alkane methane includes one carbon atom and CH4 together its molecular formula. As this compound have just single covalent bonds only, therefore, its structure formula is

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In a lengthy chain alkane molecule, added carbon atoms are attached come each other with the aid of a single covalent bond. Every atom is attached to the sufficient hydrogen atom to construct a complete of four single covalent bonds. This long-chain structure is well-known as octane. An eight-carbon alkane has a molecular formula – C 8H 18 and also structural formula-

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Alkanes List

The list of some Alkanes and the molecule formula is given below.​


List of Alkanes Molecular Formula Structure
Methane(CH4)

Ethane(C2H6)

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Propane(C3H8)

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Butane(C4H10)

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Pentane(C5H12)
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Hexane(C6H14)
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Heptane(C7H16)
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Octane(C8H18)
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Nonane(C9H20)
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Decane(C10H22)
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Physical properties of Alkanes

1. The Solubility that Alkanes

Due to very small difference the electronegativity between carbon and also hydrogen and also covalent nature that C-C shortcut or C-H bond, alkanes are typically non-polar molecules.As we normally observe, polar molecules space soluble in polar solvents whereas non-polar molecules room soluble in non-polar solvents. Hence, alkanes are hydrophobic in nature the is, alkanes room insoluble in water.

2. The Boiling allude of Alkanes

As the intermolecular valve Der Waals forces increase through the boost of the molecular dimension or the surface ar area of the molecule us observe:The boiling point of alkanes boosts with boosting molecular weight,The straight-chain alkanes room observed to have a higher boiling allude in compare to their structural isomers.

3. The Melting suggest of Alkanes

The melting point of alkanes monitor the very same trend together their boiling allude that is, it increases with boost in molecular weight.This is attributed to the reality that higher alkanes space solids and also it’s challenging to conquer intermolecular pressures of attraction in between them.It is generally observed that even-numbered alkanes have actually a higher trend in melting allude in comparison come odd-numbered alkanes together the even-numbered alkanes fill well in the solid phase, creating a well-organized structure which is complicated to break.Also, read in Detail: physics & chemical Properties the Alkanes

Alkane Formula and also StructureStructural formulas because that alkanes can be created in condensed form. For example, the structural formula the pentane contains three CH2 methylene teams in the middle of the chain. We can group them together and write the structural formula. The an initial five alkanes formulas v an unbranched chain space tabulated below.


Name Molecular formula of alkaneCondensed structural formula of alkane
methaneCH4CH4
ethaneC2H6CH3CH3
propaneC3H8CH3CH2CH3
butaneC4H10CH3(CH2)2CH3
pentaneC5H12CH3(CH2)3CH3

An abbreviated means to attract structural formulas in which each vertex and also line terminus represents a carbon atom and each line represents a bond.

Alkane Formula Chemistry

Formulas of organic compounds existing information at several levels of sophistication. Molecule formulas, such together that of octane offer the number of each type of atom in a molecule of a compound. The molecule formula that C8H18 may use to numerous alkanes, each among which has distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties. These various compounds space designated by structural formulas showing the stimulate in i m sorry the atoms in a molecule room arranged. Compound that have actually the same molecular, but different structural formulas are referred to as structural isomers.

Most essential compounds can be obtained from alkanes. In addition, countless important components of organic molecules contain one or an ext alkane groups, minus a hydrogen atom, bonded together substituents top top the straightforward organic molecule. Together a consequence of this factors, the name of numerous organic compounds are based upon alkanes.

Branched Chain Alkane Formula

As with other organic compounds, the carbon atom in alkanes may type straight chains, branched chains, or rings. These three kinds of alkanes room straight chain alkanes, branched chain alkanes and cycloalkanes. The basic molecular formula of alkane for straight and also branched-chain alkanes is CnH2n+2 and that that cyclic alkanes is CnH2n.

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For example in the diagram, the four hydrocarbon molecule contain 8 carbon atom each. In one of the molecules, all the carbon atoms space in a straight chain and in 2 they are in branched chains, whereas in a fourth, 6 of the carbon atoms room in a ring.

Alkyl Groups

When a substituent choose halogen bonds come an alkane molecule, one carbon-hydrogen link of the molecule it s okay converted to a carbon-substituent bond. It deserve to be interpreted with an example- A new compound known as chloromethane is formed when methane reacts through chlorine. The brand-new compound is written of a CH3 group that is external inspection to a chlorine atom.

When one alkane having hydrogen is gotten rid of from one bond, the is referred to as an alkyl group. This Alkyl group is frequently denoted by the letter R the exact same as halogens stand for by the letter X. Below is a methane‐chlorine reaction that can be generalised as


Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and also butane (C4H10) space the first four alkanes. Methane gas, whose molecular formula is CH4, is the simplest alkane.


Alkanes are single-bond hydrocarbon atoms. Three varieties of alkanes space available: linear straight alkanes branched alkanes and cyclic alkanes.

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Usually, alkanes room not thought about functional groups; rather, one alkane is a compound that lacks functional groups. A carbon-carbon twin bond is a functional group in an alkene.