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Magnetism is the pressure exerted through magnets once they lure or repel every other. Magnetism is caused by the activity of electrical charges.Every substance is comprised of small units referred to as atoms. Each atom has actually electrons, corpuscle that carry electric charges. Spinning like tops, the electrons circle the nucleus, or core, of an atom. Their motion generates an electrical current and also causes every electron to act prefer a microscopic magnet.

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In most substances, same numbers of electrons spin in the contrary directions, i m sorry cancels the end their magnetism. That is why products such as cloth or file are said to it is in weakly magnetic. In building materials such together iron, cobalt, and also nickel, most of the electrons spin in the very same direction. This renders the atom in this substances strongly magnetic—but they are not however magnets.To come to be magnetized, one more strongly magnetic problem must go into the magnetic ar of an existing magnet. The magnetic ar is the area around a magnet that has actually magnetic force. Every magnets have actually north and also south poles. Opposite poles room attracted to each other, when the very same poles repel each other. Once you obstacle a item of iron along a magnet, the north-seeking poles that the atoms in the iron line up in the exact same direction. The pressure generated through the aligned atom creates a magnetic field. The item of iron has come to be a magnet.Some substances can be magnetized by an electric current. When power runs through a coil that wire, it produces a magnetic field. The field roughly the coil will certainly disappear, however, as shortly as the electric present is turn off. Geomagnetic Poles

The earth is a magnet. Scientists do not fully understand why, yet they think the movement of molten metal in the Earth’s outer core generates electric currents. The currents develop a magnetic ar with invisible present of force flowing between the Earth’s magnetic poles. The geomagnetic poles space not the exact same as the North and also South Poles. Earth’s magnetic poles frequently move, early out to task far beneath the Earth’s surface. The shifting locations of the geomagnetic poles are recorded in rocks that type when molten material referred to as magma wells up v the Earth’s crust and also pours out as lava. Together lava cools and also becomes hard rock, strongly magnetic particles within the rock come to be magnetized by the Earth’s magnetic field. The particles heat up follow me the lines of force in the Earth’s field. In this way, rocks lock in a document of the place of the Earth’s geomagnetic poles at the time.

Strangely, the magnetic records of rocks developed at the very same time it seems to be ~ to allude to various locations for the poles. According to the concept of key tectonics, the rocky plates that consist of the Earth’s hard shell space constantly moving. Thus, the bowl on i beg your pardon the rocks solidified have actually moved due to the fact that the rocks taped the position of the geomagnetic poles. This magnetic records also show the the geomagnetic poles have actually reversed—changed right into the opposite type of pole—hundreds that times due to the fact that the earth formed.Earth’s magnetic ar does no move quickly or turning back often. Therefore, it have the right to be a helpful tool for helping human being find their way around. For numerous years, civilization have used magnetic compasses come navigate making use of Earth’s magnetic field. The magnetic needle that a compass currently up v Earth’s magnetic poles. The north end of a magnet points towards the magnetic north pole. Earth’s magnetic field dominates a region called the magnetosphere, which wraps approximately the planet and its atmosphere. Solar wind, fee particles from the sun, presses the magnetosphere against the earth on the side dealing with the sun and also stretches it into a teardrop form on the zero side. The magnetosphere protects the planet from many of the particles, yet some leak v it and also become trapped. As soon as particles indigenous the solar wind hit atom of gas in the upper atmosphere approximately the geomagnetic poles, they create light screens called auroras. These auroras appear over places like Alaska, Canada and also Scandinavia, where they space sometimes referred to as “Northern Lights.” The “Southern Lights” can be seen in Antarctica and new Zealand.


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The iron in the sand is magnetic, strong attracted come the magnet ~ above an atom level.

Photograph through MaryLou Naccarato, MyShot


Historic DirectionsThe ancient Greeks and also Chinese knew about naturally magnetic stones referred to as "lodestones." these chunks that iron-rich minerals may have been magnetized by lightning. The Chinese found that they can make a needle magnetic by stroking it against a lodestone, and also that the needle would point north-south.

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Animal MagnetismSome animals, such together pigeons, bees, and also salmon, deserve to detect the Earth"s magnetic field and also use it to navigate. Researchers aren"t sure just how they execute this, but these creatures seem to have actually magnetic product in your bodies that acts favor a compass.