We’re excited that you’ve made decision to take it Child and Infant CPR, and that you’ve liked us to direct your discovering experience.

You are watching: What chest landmarks show a rescuer where to push for proper cpr compressions on an infant

You never recognize when you might be referred to as upon to carry out CPR top top a boy or infant. Every parents, grandparents, babysitters, older siblings, daycare workers, teachers and anyone rather who lives or works with kids should learn exactly how to do CPR when disaster strikes. CPR have the right to save a children life by providing the brain, heart and other organs v life-giving oxygen in the event of respiratory tract and/or cardiac arrest. Drowning, poisoning, accidents, exhilaration inhalation and SIDS are only a couple of of the emergencies the could result in death if not treated quickly.

In this course, you will certainly learn:

The Pediatric Chain that Survival and your location within the chainHow to carry out high top quality chest compressions because that children and infantsHow to initiate at an early stage use of an AED (automated outside defibrillator)How to carry out rescue breathing because that pediatric victims of respiratory tract arrestHow to provide CPR to children and infants when there space 2 rescuersHow to assist child and infant victims of choking

Let’s gain started!


Two Rescuer CPR for youngsters (aged 1 year to puberty)


When 2 rescuers room present, performing CPR on a child is the exact same as performing CPR on an adult, other than that the compression ventilation ratio once 2 rescuers are present drops to 15:2. One or two hands may be used to compress the chest come a depth of 1/3 the diameter that the chest. Remember that compressions need to be done once there is no pulse present or as soon as the child’s heart price is much less than 60 beats a minute and there are indicators of bad perfusion.Rescuers need to trade off performing compressions every two minutes to prevent fatigue.

CPR for babies (up to 12 months of age)

CPR for babies is comparable to CPR because that adults and children. There space a couple of differences as follows:

Checking for responsiveness: never shake an child as this may cause mind damage. To check for responsiveness in an infant, madness the soles the the feet while calling come the infant in a according to voice.Pulse examine location– because that an infant, that is simplest to examine for a pulse using the brachial artery. To locate the brachial artery, ar 2 or 3 fingers on the inside of the top arm in between the shoulder and also elbow. Push the finger gently for 5 to 10 seconds to feeling for a pulse. Pushing too firmly may occlude the infant’s pulse.Depth that compressions– compress the infant’s chest come one-third the depth that the chest, or about 1 ½ inches.Compression distribution technique– 2 finger technique: as soon as one rescuer is present, the chest is compressed using 2 fingers top top the lower fifty percent of the sternum, avoiding the xiphoid procedure (the an extremely end the the sternum wherein it narrows and comes to a point). To landmark, ar 2 finger in the facility of the infant’s chest, just listed below the nipple line. Push down on the infant’s chest one-third the depth of the chest, or roughly 1 ½ inches. Enable the chest to totally recoil (return to its neutral position) in between compressions. Compressions must be ceded at a rate of 100-120 compressions/minute.2 thumb-encircling hand technique: when two rescuers room present, the compression: ventilation ratio drops come 15:2, the exact same as because that children. To execute this technique, position yourself in ~ the infant’s feet. Location your thumbs next by side on the facility of the infant’s chest just below the nipple line. Encircle the infant’s chest so the the finger of both hands assistance the infant’s back. Use your thumbs to supply compressions at the ideal depth and rate (100-120 compressions/minute; 1/3 of the depth of the chest or roughly 1 ½ inches). This position permits another rescuer to support airway and also breathing without obtaining in the means of the rescuer performing chest compressions, and is because of this the preferred method when 2 rescuers room present. This an approach also allows for much more consistent chest compressions and also superior blood flow and also blood pressure compared to the 2-finger technique.
*
Compression: ventilation ratio– The compression: ventilation proportion for 1 rescuer CPR in babies is 30:2, the same as for two rescuer CPR children.When to call EMS– the is far much more common for infants to suffer a respiratory tract arrest prior to going into cardiac arrest, uneven the infant has actually a congenital heart problem; in adult the the contrary is true- cardiac arrests are much more common as result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the score is to intervene before the child goes into cardiac arrest. Because that this reason, once to speak to EMS is dependent upon whether you observed the infant’s arrest. If girlfriend did not witness the infant’s arrest (unwitnessed arrest) and you are alone, girlfriend should provide CPR because that 2 minutes prior to calling EMS and also finding an AED. If girlfriend witness the arrest (i.e., the infant suddenly becomes unresponsive), girlfriend should speak to EMS and also get one AED before returning to the child to begin CPR.

The pediatric chain the survival have the right to be assumed of as a sequence of events that must happen in order come restore health in a child or infant victim of sudden cardiac arrest. Since children are much more prone to respiratory tract arrest and shock, the is crucial to recognize and prevent airway and also breathing problems before they occur to prevent cardiac arrest and also to for sure survival and also full recovery. Because that this reason, the most important connect in the pediatric chain of survive is prevention. Unintended injuries room the number one reason of fatality in children. Children lives can be saved by concentrating on avoidance of emergencies. Knowing CPR is important, however even an ext important is ensuring that CPR is never essential in the first place!

Therefore, the Pediatric Chain of survive includes:

Prevention that respiratory/cardiac arrestEarly high-quality CPRActivation of the Emergency an answer SystemEarly progressed life supportComprehensive post- cardiac arrest care

*


If you are alone and also come throughout a child who is down, monitor the actions below. If someone else is immediately easily accessible to assist, use the ‘Two Rescuer’ sequence.

Stay Safe: If friend come upon a child who might need CPR, watch around and also make certain you and also the son are in a safe place. If the son is in water or ~ above a road, try to relocate the child to a more secure area. If you space in a for sure area, execute not try to move the boy as he/she may have actually other injuries the you can not see. Just roll him/her over onto his back. Make sure the son is top top a for sure surface, in case compressions room needed.

Assess the Victim: To easily assess the victim, shiver his shoulder and yell at him. Check for breathing. If he/she is no breathing, or is no breathing generally (i.e., just gasping), shout for help.Activate the Emergency solution System and also Find an AED: Yell because that help. If someone responds, call him/her to speak to for assist by dialing 9-1-1. If you space in one area whereby an AED might be available, phone call him/her come go uncover the AED. Make sure you phone call the human to return to aid you as shortly as possible. If you room alone and witnessed the kid collapse, contact for assist by dialing 9-1-1 and run to obtain the AED if you understand where one is nearby. If you execute not know where one AED is, begin CPR automatically after dialing 9-1-1.

Begin CPR

Check for a pulse on the next of the neck. Feeling for a pulse for at least 5 seconds but NO an ext THAN 10 seconds. To examine for a carotid pulse, slide 2 or 3 fingers into the groove between the traches (windpipe) and the neck muscle at the next of the neck. Alternately, girlfriend can inspect for a pulse in the femoral artery located in the groin. To perform this, location two finger in the inside thigh, part means between the pubic bone and also the hip bone, just below the crease whereby the leg joins the abdomen. Remember, execute not feel for a pulse for an ext than 10 seconds.If over there is no pulse or the pulse is less than 60 /minute with indicators of poor perfusion* (or if you space unsure if there is a pulse), begin CPR starting with chest compressions. Carry out 30 chest compressions, followed by 2 breaths. NOTE: If you space not comfortable giving rescue breath and/or you execute not have actually a mask available, perform ‘Compression Only’ CPR.Use the heel of one hand on the lower fifty percent of the breastbone in the center of the chest.Place the various other hand on peak of the an initial hand.Straighten her arms and also lock your elbows so the your body load is over your hands.The many important component of CPR is to remember to push HARD and also FAST. Each compression must be one-third the depth of the chest or about two inches deep and the rate must be 100-120 compressions every minute.Be sure to let up on the press on the sternum after every compression (chest recoil) for this reason the chest deserve to re-expand and also blood can flow ago into the heart. The function of CPR is to help the blood flow through the heart and also into the rest of the an important organs; if you enable the chest to totally re-expand, an ext blood will flow into the heart and will be accessible to supply to the remainder of the body.Count the end loud as you perform compressions. As soon as you have actually done 30 compressions, try to open the victim’s airway by act a head tilt/chin lift. Keep in mind that if you space doing ‘Compressions Only’ CPR, you have the right to skip this step.With your non-dominant hand, push on the victim’s forehead to tilt the head back.With your dominant hand, ar your finger under the bony part of the lower jaw and gently lift the jaw to carry the chin forward. Be certain you lift up on the bony part of the jaw and also not the soft organization under the jaw therefore you nothing block the victim’s airway. Execute not use your ignorance to background the jaw. Allow the victim’s mouth to continue to be slightly open.If girlfriend think the person’s neck might be injured, avoid the head tilt/chin lift and also use the jaw thrust exercise if you have actually been trained to carry out so. Instructions because that performing a jaw thrust are detailed later in the unit.If you have actually a barrier maker to use in between your mouth and the children face, use it. Back the danger of epidemic from performing CPR is very, an extremely low, it is encourage to use a barrier maker when offering CPR. This consists of the usage of confront masks. Provide each breath progressively – each breath must last one second. Make certain the chest rises v each breath. Repeat, offering a 2nd breath.Start another cycle that chest compressions. Remember, push HARD and also FAST. Alternate chest compressions (30) and breaths (2) until aid arrives.

*Signs of bad perfusion: this refers to a lack of blood circulation that outcomes in details visible signs, including pale skin color or bluish discoloration that the skin. Fingers, earlobes, lips and also nail beds might look bluish or light gray. Periodically there may be mottling, i beg your pardon is a mixture that a purplish or blotchy red-blue colour on the four times (arms or legs).


If you are the lone rescuer of an infant:

Assess the child for responsiveness by tapping the soles that the infant’s feet while calling his/her surname loudly. Examine for breathing- if over there is no breath or the child is breathing abnormally or only gasping, speak to for help.If who responds to your contact for help, ask castle to contact 9-1-1 (activate EMS) and also find one AED. If you are alone and witness the infant enter arrest, do CPR for 2 minutes prior to calling for help; if friend come throughout and infant who has actually been “down” for an unknown period of time, contact 9-1-1 first before beginning CPR.Check the infant’s brachial pulse because that at least 5, but no an ext than 10, seconds. Location 2 or 3 fingers on the inside of the top arm in between the shoulder and also elbow. Press the fingers under gently for 5 to 10 secs to feel for a pulse. Remember: pushing also firmly may occlude the infant’s pulse.
*
If you are not certain you deserve to feel the pulse, the pulse is lacking or the infant’s heart rate is listed below 60 beats per minute with indications of bad perfusion (pale or bluish discoloration in the face, extremities or pond beds), start CPR, start with 30 compressions followed by 2 breaths.Place the child on his ago on the floor or ~ above a firm surface.Place 2 fingers in the center of his chest just below the nipple line; do not press on the end of the breastbone.Provide 100-120 chest compressions every minute to a depth of 1/3 the depth the the chest or around 1 ½ inches.The principles of providing breaths for infants are the same as because that children and adults. Use the correct sized challenge mask for the child (the mask need to cover the mouth and also nose without prolonging past the chin or extending the eyes). Each breath must go in end 1 second and should cause visible chest rise. A breath should require just a small puff that air into the mouthpiece that the maker to reason chest rise- avoid too much ventilations. Lastly, do a head tilt-chin lift practice to open up the infant’s airway; the infant’s head should be placed in “sniffing position” with the infant’s head tilted just enough that the nose appears to it is in sniffing the air. In this position, the exterior ear canal should be level v the optimal of the infant’s shoulder. Avoid hyperextending the neck- you also want to avoid allowing the chin to autumn down towards the neck. You deserve to do this by placing one hand top top the infant’s forehead if you carry out chest compressions. In this way, the infant’s airway will remain open and also will no close off. Put a tiny towel under the infant’s shoulders can aid to maintain ideal positioning.

*
After about two minute of compressions (five cycles of 30 compressions and also 2 breaths), leaving the son to call 911 and also get an AED if you understand where one is (and girlfriend or someone has actually not already done so). Then return to the child to proceed CPR.Use one AED as quickly as it is available.
If there space 2 rescuers available:

Rescuer 1– assess the boy for responsiveness by tapping the soles that the feet and also calling to him/her loudly. Inspect for breathing- if the infant is no breathing or is breath abnormally or just gasping, send Rescuer 2 come activate EMS and bring the AED (if one is available).Rescuer 1– check the infant’s brachial pulse for at least 5, but not an ext than 10, seconds. Place 2 or 3 finger on the inside of the upper arm in between the shoulder and elbow. Push the fingers under gently because that 5 come 10 seconds to feel for a pulse. Remember: pushing also firmly might occlude the infant’s pulse.Rescuer 1– If you space not sure you deserve to feel the pulse, the pulse is absent or the infant’s heart price is below 60 beats every minute with indicators of poor perfusion (pale or bluish discoloration in the face, four times or nail beds), start CPR, start with 30 compressions followed by two breaths.Place the child on his earlier on the ground or top top a for sure surface.b. Ar 2 fingers in the facility of the infant’s chest just below the nipple line; execute not press on the end of the breastbone.Provide 100-120 chest compressions per minute come a depth the 1/3 the depth of the chest or roughly 1 ½ inches.The values of providing breaths for babies are the exact same as because that children and adults. Usage the correct sized face mask because that the child (the mask must cover the mouth and also nose without prolonging past the chin or extending the eyes). Every breath should go in end 1 2nd and should reason visible chest rise. A breath must require only a small puff that air right into the mouthpiece that the maker to reason chest rise- avoid excessive ventilations. As soon as the second person returns, change the ratio of compressions come ventilations to 15:2.Rescuer 2 should place the thumbs the both hands on the lower half of the infant’s breastbone, while being cautious not to push on the finish of the breastbone (xiphoid process). Put the finger of both hands about the infant’s ago to administer support. Usage the thumbs to boring the sternum around 1/3 the depth of the chest, or around 1 ½ inches. Compress at a price of 100-120 compressions every minute.Rescuer 1 should provide breaths as explained above.Continue CPR at a proportion of 15 compressions come 2 breaths and also switch duties every 2 minutes to stop fatigue.Use the AED once available.

Mouth-to-Mouth-and sleep Breathing

To provide breaths come an infant when there is no confront mask available:

Use a head tilt-chin lift to maintain an open up airway (sniffing position), being mindful not come hyperextend the neck, which could block the airway.Place your mouth end the victim’s mouth and also NOSE to develop a tight seal.Blow into the infant’s nose and mouth end 1 second, v just sufficient volume and also force to cause the chest to increase with each breath. Be cautious not come ventilate too forcefully, as doing for this reason may reason lung damage.If the chest does no rise, repeat the head tilt-chin lift and try to ventilate the victim again. You might need to try to administer breaths in ~ a few different positions before you achieve airway patency (airway is in an open position).If the child is older and also you can not cover both the infant’s mouth and nose, pinch the nose closed and also place her mouth over the victim’s to type a tight seal- just the very same as friend would perform for a child.

You might wonder exactly how mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-mouth-and-nose breathing deserve to sustain the victim. In actual fact, your expired air contains about 17% oxygen- this is just sufficient oxygen to accomplish the victim’s demands for a brief period of time.

When providing mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-mouth-and-nose breathing, that is important not to carry out breaths that space too forceful or also rapid. Doing therefore may reason air to go into the stomach quite than the lungs, which can cause gastric inflation. Gastric inflation may an outcome in vomiting, and an unconscious victim may construct pneumonia if vomitus makes its way to the lungs. To stop gastric inflation, offer each breath gradually over 1 second and supply just sufficient air to make the chest rise.


Respiratory arrest is characterized as the cessation the breathing. Throughout respiratory arrest, and when there is poor breathing, the victim will certainly still have actually some quantity of cardiac output, which you will have the ability to detect together a palpable pulse.

It is vital to have the ability to recognize respiratory tract arrest, or impending respiratory arrest, which might be seen as slow, irregular or panting respirations. This abnormal respirations are inadequate to assistance life. Respiratory arrest inevitably leader to cardiac arrest if not treated, thus rescuers have to intervene conveniently to prevent this destruction by offering rescue breathing. For children and also infants, give one breath every 3-5 secs (12-20 breaths per minute). Inspect for a pulse every 2 minutes- if the victim loses their pulse, begin chest compressions an unified with breaths.

Choking in the aware Child (older than 1 year of age)

STAND (OR KNEEL) BEHIND THE VICTIM and also WRAP her ARMS roughly THE VICTIM’S WAIST.IF STANDING, placed ONE FOOT IN in between THE VICTIM’S FEET and also ONE FOOT BEHIND YOU-THIS POSITION offers STABILITY must THE VICTIM come to be UNCONSCIOUS and YOU must EASE THE VICTIM come THE GROUND.PLACE her FIST with THE ignorance SIDE IN JUST above THE VICTIM’S BELLYBUTTON and also BELOW THE STERNUM (BREASTBONE).GRAB your FIST with YOUR various other HAND.ADMINISTER abdominal THRUSTS, PULLING INWARD and also UPWARD until THE international OBJECT COMES the end OR THE VICTIM i do not care UNCONSCIOUS. Each THRUST should BE FORCEFUL, DISTINCT and also SEPARATE.

Choking in the conscious Infant (less than 12 months of age)

SIT OR KNEEL with THE infant IN your LAP.IF NOT difficult TO DO, eliminate THE INFANT’S garments TO expose THE INFANT’S CHEST.REST THE INFANT’S human body ON your FOREARM v THE INFANT’S HEAD reduced THAN THE BODY. Support THE JAW and also HEAD through YOUR HAND. Remainder YOUR FOREARM ON your THIGH OR LAP TO administer SUPPORT.GIVE 5 earlier BLOWS FORCEFULLY with THE hoe OF her HAND between THE INFANT’S SHOULDER BLADES.SUPPORT THE earlier OF THE INFANT’S HEAD v THE PALM OF her HAND and THE INFANT’S JAW and HEAD with THE other PALM WHILE turning HIM end (FACE UP) top top YOUR other FOREARM. Save THE INFANT’S HEAD reduced THAN its BODY. Remainder YOUR FOREARM ON her THIGH because that SUPPORT.GIVE 5 CHEST THRUSTS, just AS you WOULD as soon as PERFORMING CHEST COMPRESSIONS IN CPR. CHEST THRUSTS have to BE yielded AT A price OF 1 CHEST THRUST PER 2nd AND have to BE given WITH sufficient FORCE come DISLODGE A foreign BODY.REPEAT back BLOWS/CHEST THRUSTS until THE thing COMES out OR THE VICTIM loser CONSCIOUSNESS.

*

Choking in the Unconscious Child

IF YOU space CARINIG for A kid WHO IS CHOKING and also THEY lose CONSCIOUSNESS, reduced THE VICTIM tenderness TO THE GROUND.ACTIVATE EMS/CALL 9-1-1BEGIN CPR, beginning WITH CHEST COMPRESSIONS- perform NOT inspect FOR A PULSE.EACH TIME YOU open THE AIRWAY TO carry out VENTILATIONS, open THE VICTIM’S MOUTH and also CHECK because that THE OBJECT. IF YOU can SEE THE OBJECT, turn THE VICTIM’s HEAD come THE SIDE and SWEEP IT the end OF THE VICTIM’S MOUTH v YOUR table of contents FINGER. Never ever PERFORM A blind FINGER SWEEP- THIS MAY pressure THE thing FARTHER down THE VICTIM’S AIRWAY.IF YOU do NOT see THE OBJECT, attempt TO provide BREATHS. IF BREATHS will certainly NOT go IN, RESUME CHEST COMPRESSIONS.AFTER about 5 CYCLES the COMPRESSIONS and also VENTILATIONS, ACTIVATE EMS/CALL 9-1-1 IF NOT already DONE.IF THE OBSTRUCTION IS RELIEVED, examine RESPONSIVENESS, BREATHING and PULSE. Provide RESCUE breathing OR CPR together REQUIRED. IF THE VICTIM IS RESPONSIVE, THEY need to BE taken to HOSPITAL TO dominion OUT any type of INJURY brought about BY ab OR CHEST THRUSTS.

Choking in the Unconscious Infant

CALL for HELP. IF someone RESPONDS, SEND THEM to ACTIVATE EMS/CALL 9-1-1PLACE THE child ON A FLAT, for sure SURFACE.BEGIN CPR, starting WITH COMPRESSIONS. Every TIME YOU open up THE AIRWAY TO deliver BREATHS, look at TO see IF THE object IS VISBLE. IF THE thing IS VISIBLE, rotate THE INFANT’S HEAD to THE SIDE and USE your INDEX FINGER TO move THE OBJECT out OF THE INFANT’S MOUTH. Never ever PERFORM A blind FINGER SWEEP, as THIS MAY force THE thing FARTHER DOWN into THE AIRWAY.AFTER 5 CYCLES the COMPRESSIONS and also VENTILATIONS (OR test VENTILATIONS), ACTIVATE THE EMERGENCY an answer SYSTEM IF NOT currently DONE.IF THE OBSTRUCTION IS RELIEVED, examine RESPONSIVENESS, BREATHING and PULSE. Provide RESCUE breath OR CPR together REQUIRED. IF THE VICTIM IS RESPONSIVE, THEY need to BE taken to HOSPITAL TO dominance OUT any type of INJURY led to BY abdominal muscle OR CHEST THRUSTS.
SkillChildInfant
Check scene safetyEnsure the security of the scene prior to entryEnsure the safety of the scene prior to entry
Determine patience responsivenessTap on the shoulder and shout, “Are you ok?”

Look because that gasping, abnormal breathing, or absence of chest movement.

Tap the soles the the feet while calling the infant’s name.

Look for gasping, abnormal breathing, or absence of chest movement.

Activate EMS – call for help! If cardiac event is witnessed, activate EMS and get an AED (if you understand where one is) before starting CPR.

If cardiac occasion is not witnessed, administer 2 minute of CPR, then leave the victim come activate EMS and also get an AED. Return to the victim to resume CPR and use the AED as shortly as possible.

Same together for child.
Check pulseUse carotid or femoral artery. Examine for pulse for 5 come no much more than 10 seconds.Check brachial artery in the top arm for 5 come no more than 10 seconds.
Compressions:

Hard and also Fast

1 rescuer: 30:2

2 rescuers: 15:2

1 or 2 hands relying on child’s size.

Depth: 1/3 AP diameter of chest, or about 2”

1 rescuer: 30:2

2 rescuers:

15:2

2 fingers on breastbone listed below nipple line OR 2 thumbs (2 rescuers)

Depth: 1/3 AP diameter the chest, or around 1 ½”

AirwayOpen the airway using head tilt-chin lift- usage jaw thrust if you suspect spinal cord injury.Open the airway utilizing head tilt-chin lift. Head need to be in “sniffing” position. Use roll under shoulders come maintain suitable positioning.
Breathing2 breaths end 1 second each, complying with 30 compressions (or 15 compressions because that 2 rescuers). Watch because that chest rise. Avoid excessive ventilation.

.
Same together for child
Rescue breathing: Patient v pulse and also not breath or gasping*1 breath every 3-5 seconds, rechecking circulation every 2 minutes.Same as child.
AEDFor infants and also children up to age 8 years, use boy pads; if not available, use adult pads, don’t let pads call each other. Might use anterior-posterior pad placement.Use boy attenuator pads; if not available, usage adult pads, don’t pads contact each other. Might use anterior-posterior pad placement.

See more: Ammonium Carbonate, (Nh4)2Co3 D Is (Nh4)2Co3 Soluble In Water


Congratulations! You’ve reached the finish of the course. Every that’s left to execute is happen the multiple selection examination. Friend can accessibility the attach to the practice exam and final exam at the bottom of this page https://www.hunterriverpei.com/courses/infant-cpr-certification or by walk to mine Account.