Sections:Prelude|Founding and also Early Years|The brand-new Negro Movement|The an excellent Depression|World war II and also the write-up War Years|The Civil legal rights Era|A regeneration of the Struggle|Towards A new Century
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World war I developed a revolution for african Americans native the “old” to the “new.” Thousands moved from the rural southern to the commercial urban North, follow a new vision of social and economic opportunity. Throughout the war black troops battled abroad “to save the people safe because that democracy.” They returned home identified to achieve a fuller joining in American society. The approach of the polite rights motion shifted native the “accommodationist” technique of Booker T. Washington come the militant advocacy of W.E.B. Du Bois. These pressures converged to help create the “New negro Movement” of the 1920s, which promoted a renewed feeling of gyeongju pride, cultural self-expression, financial independence, and also progressive politics.

Evoking the “New Negro,” the NAACP lobbied aggressively for the i of a federal law that would prohibit lynching. The NAACP played a an essential role in the flowering of the negro Renaissance focused in new York’s Harlem, the social component the the brand-new Negro Movement. NAACP officials W.E.B. Du Bois, James Weldon Johnson, Walter White, and also Jessie Fauset detailed aesthetic guidance, jae won support, and literature to this social awakening. The NAACP’s initiatives on the international front included sending James Weldon Johnson come Haiti to inspection the occupation of U.S. Armed Forces there. In the courts the NAACP prosecuted cases involving disenfranchisement, distinction ordinances, restrictive covenants, and also lack the due process and equal security in criminal cases.

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In this letter, Congressman Leonidas C. Dyer (R-Missouri) invites the NAACP to support a new federal anti-lynching bill. Dyer, who offered a largely black constituency in St. Louis, had actually tried to breakthrough a bill in Congress due to the fact that 1911. He to be reinvigorated through the testimonies of the plenty of survivors the the 1917 eastern St. Louis riot who rehunterriverpei.comated to his district. Dyer additionally asks NAACP Secretary john Shillady for recent data ~ above lynchings the he might include in a speech. His request brought about the publishing of Thirty year of Lynching, 1889–1918 a year later.


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Congressman L.C. Dyer to john R. Shillady worrying an anti-lynching bill, April 6, 1918. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of congress (047.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP


In April 1918, Congressman Leonidas C. Dyer (R-Missouri) presented an anti-lynching invoice in the home of Representatives, based on a bill drafted by NAACP founder Albert E. Pillsbury in 1901. The bill referred to as for the beginning of lynchers in commonwealth court. State officials that failed to safeguard lynching victims or prosecute lynchers could challenge five year in prison and a $5,000 fine. The victim’s heirs might recover up to $10,000 from the county wherein the crime occurred. After a lengthy fight, the house passed the Dyer invoice on January 26, 1922 by a vote of 230 to 119, but a filibuster by southerly Democrats defeated the bill in the Senate.



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Federal law versus Lynchings, decided of Hon. L.C. Dyer the Missouri in the residence of Representatives, might 7, 1918. Pamphlet.
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During people War I, African-American soldiers challenged discrimination regardless of their service. Conceding that the government would no admit blacks come white maintain camps, the NAACP supported Joel Spingarn’s 1917 contact for a segregated officers’ cultivate camp. The war Department established a separate camp in Des Moines, Iowa, and Spingarn helped recruit the 1,250 enrollees, mainly college college student or graduates. Yet treatment of black trainees was deplorable, and also after an easy training, most black servicemen to be assigned to labor units. Lt. Colonel Charles Young, the highest-ranking black officer in ~ the start of world War I, was retired under protest to stop him having actually a command in Europe; the NAACP effectively fought for his reinstatement. W.E.B. Du Bois investigated the therapy of black troops in France in 1919. This concern of The Crisis is specialized to the negro soldier and features articles around black soldiers.



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Robert Edmund Jones. Soldiers. Cover of The Crisis, June 1918. Brand-new York: NAACP, 1918. General Collections, Library of conference (049.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP


Kathryn Magnolia Johnson (1878–1955), a high institution teacher, functioned for the NAACP together a ar agent native 1913 come 1916, developing branches in the Midwest and South. Addie Waites Hunton (1866–1943), a fellow teacher, functioned as a NAACP field organizer from 1921 come 1924 and also helped species the 1927 Pan-African Congress. In 1918 Johnson and also Hunton sailed for France together YMCA employees to help black troops. They wrote around their suffer in this book, two Colored Women with the American Expeditionary Forces.


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James Weldon Johnson, in between 1900 and also 1920. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of congress (050.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP





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Photograph of Walter Francis White, between 1920 and also 1940. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (051.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP




Director the Branches Robert W. Bagnall


Robert Bagnall (1883–1943), a second generation Episcopal priest, to be born in Norfolk, Virginia. Favor his father, he attended Bishop Payne Divinity school in adjacent Petersburg. In 1911 he ended up being rector that St. Matthew’s Episcopal Church in Detroit. As a founder that the Detroit NAACP the led effective campaigns versus school segregation, police brutality, and also discrimination in ~ the Ford motor Company. He to be made NAACP district organizer that the good Lakes region in 1918 and supported to director of branches in 1919. Bagnall traveled across the nation to NAACP branches raising funds because that the nationwide office. Under his leadership, the branch department came to be the NAACP’s backbone. In 1931 the NAACP dismissed him due to the fact that of declining revenue. The adhering to year Bagnall went back to the ministry as rector of St. Cutting board Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, wherein he served until his death in 1943.




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Robert W. Bagnall, in between 1915 and also 1925. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (061.00.00) Courtesy the the NAACP





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William Pickens, in between 1910 and also 1920. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (058.00.00) Courtesy that the NAACP





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Lynching flag flying at NAACP headquarters, ca. 1938. Gelatin silver- print. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (046.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP Digital id # ppmsca-09705





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James Weldon Johnson come Secretary that State Charles Evans Hughes worrying the occupation the Haiti by unified States equipped Forces, in march 28, 1921. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of conference (054.00.00) Courtesy the the NAACP





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Marcus Garvey to James Weldon Johnson concerning the NAACP’s alleged interference through the global Negro innovation Association, January 21, 1922. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of congress (055.00.00) Courtesy the Dr. Juilus W. Garvey





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The Crisis Magazine


The NAACP created The crisis in 1910 to administer a monthly magazine because that its members. Under the editorship the W.E.B. Du Bois, The dilemm became the premier outlet for black writers and also artists. Prefer the nationwide Urban League’s magazine Opportunity, it sponsored an annual literary challenge offering cash prizes. The Amy Spingarn contest in Literature and also Art to be funded by Joel Spingarn and also his wife Amy between 1925 and1928. In 1930 The Crisis announced the production of the Du Bois literary prize, funded by Louise Mathews. The covering illustration, presented here, through Laura Wheeler Waring shows the attention in afri themes and also aesthetics popular during the Harlem Renaissance.

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Jessie Redmon Fauset, n.d. Photograph. Harmon structure Records, Manuscript Division, Library of congress (065.00.00)






NAACP Defends Soldiers of the 24th Infantry




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Walter Burkett, 24th Infantry, to NAACP Assistant Secretary Walter White thanking the NAACP for defending soldiers of the 24th Infantry, February 8, 1924. Autograph letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of congress (057.00.00) Courtesy that the NAACP





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Langston Hughes to Walter White, October 29, 1925. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of conference (062.00.00) Courtesy that the NAACP Digital i would # na0062




The Ossian Sweet Case


In September 1925, Dr. Ossian Sweet and also ten other defendants were tried in Detroit, charged v murder if protecting the Sweet house from a riotous mob. Dr. Sweet and his household had simply moved right into their freshly purchased house in a white neighborhood. The NAACP retained Clarence Darrow together chief attorney. The an initial trial ended in a hung jury. The 2nd trial caused the acquittal the Ossian’s brother, Henry Sweet, versus whom the State feeling it had the strongest case. Every the other instances were dropped. The NAACP used the victory to breakthrough the legitimate assault versus residential segregation.




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Walter White come James Weldon Johnson concerning the Ossian Sweet case, November 13, 1925. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of conference (063.00.00) Courtesy that the NAACP





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NAACP officials in ~ the Twentieth annual Session that the NAACP in Cleveland, Ohio, June 26, 1929. Photograph. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of conference (066.00.00) Courtesy the the NAACP Digital id # ppmsca-05523




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Sections:Prelude|Founding and Early Years|The new Negro Movement|The good Depression|World war II and the write-up War Years|The Civil legal rights Era|A renewal of the Struggle|Towards A brand-new Century