Note: This post relates to content in the eighth execution of the Handbook. Because that up-to-date guidance, watch the nine edition of the Handbook.

You are watching: What does cf mean in text

In, cf. may be used in parenthetical citations, however writers have to take care not to usage the abbreviation, definition “compare” (from the Latin “confer”), when they intend see also. Whereas see likewise is used to direct a reader to a supplementary work, cf. is used to to compare one source with another:

Diminutive staffs (between ten and also twenty officials to check the nation’s multifarious workhouses) necessarily meant that much was left to “local discretion” (Fraser 53; cf. Wood 79–83).*

In the instance above, the quote “(Fraser 53; cf. Hardwood 79–83)” means that Fraser is the source of the preceding obtained material and also that Wood might be compared with Fraser.

See more: How Many Months Is 87 Days In Months? Convert 87 D To Mo What Is 87 Days In Months

For an instance of how see also may be used, view our post on see and watch also

*Example taken from Lauren M. E. Goodlad, “Beyond the Panopticon: victorian Britain and also the an essential Imagination” (, vol. 118, no. 3, May 2003, pp. 539–56). 

Filed Under: abbreviations, in-text citations

Published 24 July 2019


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