There room many types of hunterriverpei.comical bonds and also forces that bind molecules together. The 2 most basic types of bonds are defined as one of two people ionic or covalent. In ionic bonding, atoms carry electrons to each other. Ionic bonds call for at the very least one electron donor and also one electron acceptor. In contrast, atoms through the same electronegativity share electron in covalent bonds, since neither atom preferentially attracts or repels the common electrons.

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Ionic bonding is the finish transfer of valence electron(s) between atoms. That is a type of hunterriverpei.comistry bond the generates 2 oppositely charged ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to end up being a positively fee cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electron to become a negatively fee anion. Ionic bonds require an electron donor, often a metal, and an electron acceptor, a nonmetal.

Ionic bonding is observed since metals have couple of electrons in your outer-most orbitals. By losing those electrons, these metals can accomplish noble gas configuration and also satisfy the octet rule. Similarly, nonmetals that have actually close to 8 electron in your valence shells often tend to readily accept electrons to attain noble gas configuration. In ionic bonding, much more than 1 electron can be donated or received to accomplish the octet rule. The fees on the anion and also cation exchange mail to the variety of electrons donated or received. In ionic bonds, the net fee of the compound need to be zero.


This sodium molecule donates the lone electron in its valence orbit in stimulate to achieve octet configuration. This creates a positively charged cation because of the loss of electron.

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In this example, the sodium atom is donating that 1 valence electron come the chlorine atom. This creates a sodium cation and also a chlorine anion. Notification that the net fee of the resulting link is 0.


In this example, a phosphorous atom is sharing its 3 unpaired electrons with three chlorine atoms. In the end product, all 4 of this molecules have actually 8 valence electrons and satisfy the octet rule.

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1. Are these compound ionic or covalent?


2. In the following reactions, suggest whether the reactants and also products space ionic or covalently bonded.



b) Clarification: What is the nature of the bond in between sodium and also amide? What type of bond forms in between the anion carbon chain and also sodium?