Atherosclerosis, sometimes called "hardening of the arteries," occurs as soon as fat, cholesterol, and other substances develop up in the walls of arteries. These deposits are referred to as plaques. End time, this plaques have the right to narrow or totally block the arteries and also cause difficulties throughout the body.

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Atherosclerosis is a common disorder.


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Atherosclerosis regularly occurs with aging. Together you prosper older, plaque buildup narrows your arteries and also makes castle stiffer. These transforms make it harder because that blood to circulation through them.

Clots may form in these narrowed arteries and block blood flow. Pieces of plaque can additionally break off and move to smaller sized blood vessels, impede them.

These blockages starve tissues of blood and oxygen. This can result in damages or tissue death. It is a common reason of love attack and also stroke.

High blood cholesterol level can cause hardening that the arteries at a younger age.

For plenty of people, high cholesterol level are due to a diet that is too high in saturated fats and also trans fats.

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Other factors that can add to hardening the the arteries include:

Family background of hardening of the arteriesLack of exerciseSmoking

Atherosclerosis walk not cause symptoms till blood flow to part of the human body becomes slowed or blocked.

If the arteries giving the heart end up being narrow, blood circulation can sluggish down or stop. This can reason chest ache (stable angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms.

Narrowed or clogged arteries may also cause problems in the intestines, kidneys, legs, and brain.


A health treatment provider will do a physical exam and also listen come the heart and lungs v a stethoscope. Atherosclerosis can produce a whooshing or punch sound ("bruit") end an artery.

All adults over the age of 18 should have actually their blood push checked every year. Much more frequent measurement might be essential for those v a background of high blood press readings or those v risk determinants for high blood pressure.

Cholesterol experimentation is encourage in all adults. The major national guidelines different on the suggested age to begin testing.

Screening should begin between periods 20 to 35 because that men and also ages 20 to 45 because that women.Repeat experimentation is not needed for five years for many adults with normal cholesterol levels.Repeat testing may be essential if lifestyle alters occur, together as huge increase in weight or a adjust in diet.More frequent testing is essential for adults with a background of high cholesterol, diabetes, kidney problems, love disease, stroke, and other conditions

A variety of imaging tests might be provided to see exactly how well blood moves v your arteries.

Doppler exam that use ultrasound or sound wavesSpecial CT scans dubbed CT angiography

Lifestyle transforms will alleviate your risk of atherosclerosis. Things you can do include:

Avoid fatty foods: Eat well-balanced meals that room low in fat and cholesterol. Include several daily servings that fruits and also vegetables. Including fish to her diet at least twice a week might be helpful. However, carry out not eat fried fish.Limit how much alcohol you drink: Recommended borders are one drink a day for women, two a day for men.Get constant physical activity: Exercise with moderate soot (such as brisk walking) 5 work a week because that 30 minute a job if you room at a healthy weight. For load loss, practice for 60 come 90 minute a day. Talk to her provider before beginning a brand-new exercise plan, especially if you have actually been diagnosed v heart condition or friend have ever before had a heart attack.
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If her blood press is high, that is essential for friend to lower it and keep it under control.

The score of treatment is to alleviate your blood push so the you have a lower risk that health problems caused through high blood pressure. You and your provider should set a blood press goal for you.

Do not stop or readjust high blood pressure drugs without talk to her provider.

Your provider may want you come take medication for abnormal cholesterol level or because that high blood press if lifestyle transforms do no work. This will count on:

Your ageThe medications you takeYour danger of side results from feasible medicinesWhether you have actually heart an illness or other blood flow problemsWhether girlfriend smoke or space overweightWhether you have actually diabetes or other heart condition risk factorsWhether you have any other clinical problems, such as kidney condition

Your provider may suggest taking aspirin or another medicine to help prevent blood clots from developing in your arteries. These drugs are called antiplatelet drugs. Do NOT take it aspirin without first talking to your provider.

Losing weight if you are overweight and reducing blood street if you have actually diabetes or pre-diabetes can help reduce the threat of arising atherosclerosis.


Atherosclerosis can not be reversed when it has occurred. However, lifestyle changes and also treating high cholesterol levels can prevent or slow-moving the procedure from ending up being worse. This can help reduce the opportunities of having actually a heart attack and stroke together a result of atherosclerosis.


In some cases, the plaque is component of a procedure that reasons a weakening of the wall surface of an artery. This have the right to lead to a bulge in an artery dubbed an aneurysm. Aneurysms have the right to break open (rupture). This causes bleeding that can be life threatening.


Hardening the the arteries; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis


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References


Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, Buroker AB, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA reminder on the major prevention of cardiovascular disease: executive, management summary: a report of the American college of Cardiology/American love Association Task force on Clinical exercise Guidelines. J to be Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(10):1376-1414.PMID: 30894319 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30894319/.

Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and also cardiovascular disease. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald"s heart Disease: A Textbook that Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 48.

James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. 2014 evidence-based tip for the management of high blood push in adults: report indigenous the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint national Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520. PMID: 24352797 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24352797/.

Libby P. The vascular biology of atherosclerosis. In: Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Tomaselli GF, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald"s heart Disease: A Textbook that Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 44.

Marks AR. Cardiac and circulatory function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 47.

US preventative Services Task pressure website. Final recommendation statement: statin usage for the primary prevention the cardiovascular disease in adults: preventative medication. To update November 13, 2016. Accessed January 28, 2020. Www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/statin-use-in-adults-preventive-medication1.

Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA pointer for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and also management the high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American college of Cardiology/American love Association Task pressure on Clinical exercise Guidelines. J am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(19):2199-2269. PMID: 2914653 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29146533/.

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Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, combine Professor that Medicine, division of Cardiology, Harborview clinical Center, university of Washington medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, clinical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and also the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.


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